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University of Guelph
SOC 3750
Michelle Dumas

WEEK 2 Evolution of Policing Political / Industrial Era - Politically dominated & corrupted (stability depended on political regime), vague police role, no official training th - End 19 cent: corrupt - Start 20 cent: reform, more honest, move away from politics th - Mid 20 cent: 1920s – 1) intro of prov police 2) growth/ devt of municipal police 3) expansion& intro of policing to Prairies & West Legal/Reform/Modernization Era (1920s-1960s) - Scientific: apply science to police work (ex. fingerprints), knowledge could be conveyed - Architects of Reform (1930s): public admin began, adopt principles from private sector, quality of recruits  - Tech Change: more professional (cars/phones), public use services,  contact w public but  w officers, impersonal Service/Contingency/Crisis/Post Reform/Community Era - Changes in policy devt, officer accountability, selection criteria (more edu & training), research on police  Community Policing - Not isolate, sympathize w the community, stress wider roles Role Debates - Bureaucratic OR Political 1. B: integrating w democratic society, see police strictly controlled, consistent but room for individualization 2. P: need to be responsive to each community’s needs, be flexible 3. Moving towards political, but RCMP bureaucratic - Community Norms OR Law Enforcement: should police or the community pick most important issues, enforce across the board or diff for diff communities - Profession OR Craft: occupation=formal skill, hiring process/behaviour followed (craft implies less) - Crime Fighters OR Social Workers: fight crime or concern w events leading to crime – preoccupied w former but spend time on latter - Prevention OR Apprehension - Proactive OR Reactive: police initiated VS react (respond to specific events)120 3 Roles of Policing Order Maintenance: prevent & control (correct) behaviour disturbing public, judgement of right/wrong, involve crim system or not Law Enforcement: respond to/investigate crimes, apprehend offenders, preventative patrolling, aggressive & punitive Service: public, generate good will towards police, inflates budget & distorts idea of cost of crime control, prevents professionalization & distracts from their primary role Recruitment - Media, apps, volunteers, presentations, mail, virtual world – want to well rep popn - Application: screen, background check, interviews, tests (written& cognitive), polygraph, medical exam, physical tests Occupational Prestige decent pay w less edu, how we perceive the occupation, shows society valued & looked up to Organizational Philosophies - From “force” to “service” started 1980s: public relations move, less forceful/negative, more proactive seeming - “Service” communication, problem solving, team, conflict resolution, training, crime, edu - “Force”crime, policing (law enforcement), moral order, social service Training Basic Training - Separate police edu/training from mainstream edu, at least gr12 edu OR training at uni campus, police staff provide classes OR expose to crim justice - In ON hired by agency first, RCMP 2-6 week training course - 2 distinct socialization processes: 1)formal: selection& training programs (learned from supervisors) b)interacting w experienced officers/peers - Criticisms: too short, isolated (lack real world experience), paramilitary (not appropriate anymore), technical skills (not as much ppl skills more physical), maladaptive coping strategies (and social distancing) Field Training: officers act as mentors Ongoing Training: 1. In service: update ppl w necessary info 2. Multicultural: sensitive to diversities 3. Supervisory: officers in first line supervisory positions 4. Specialized: prepares officers for specific tasks 5. Management: officers move beyond 1 line supervisory positions Education - Pros: better oral/written communication skills, less complaints, more professional, adapt better, better decision making, professionalization (also means better pay), promotion more likely, understand system better, sensitive - Cons: become disillusioned, job loses lustre, don't learn as much as thought would, bored, request reassignment, want more challenge, less connection to lower class citizens, too soft Women Barriers 1. Tradition: job has macho image, sexual harassment and stereotyping, seen as unable to deal w violent incidents, family responsibilities & leaves 2. Credibility: not taken seriously, harder to establish career, attributes women bring to policing not valued 3. Assumptions: seen as less committed, can put male partner at risk, unsupported by public 4. Self-Made Barriers: limit their opportunities by underrating ability, lack confidence 5. Isolation: few women in agencies, networking few, feel isolated, structure alienating (espesh smaller depts) WEEK 3 Approaches to the Study of Police Orgs  Normative - Address management & admin issues, make recommendations, hierarchical dimensions of rule Classical / Bureaucratic - Orgs seen as a machine should develop rational systems and operate efficiently to obtain their goals - Efficient, reinforce & maintain existing patterns of power & control Bureaucratic - Police organized according to traditional org theory, need rigid hierarchical structure,  efficiency by applying classical principles - How should work, not how it does - Cons: focus on crime control, no interest in evolution Neoclassical / Democratic (1940s/1950s) - Introduce research from the behavioural sciences (humanistic approach, orgs don't exist in isolation - Late 1960s, more than law enforcement, strict legal mandates ineffective for order maintenance & service functions, need qualified personnel using discretion, decentralized structure, neighbourhood level problem identification,  service role Systems/Contingency - Orgs open to their enviro & must achieve an appropriate relship w, parts of org interrelated and depend on e/o, examine enviro of org to decide how to organize it best - Contingency: need for diff managerial techniques to diff tasks Characteristics of Bureaucracies - Popular when industrial revolution altered social st
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