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First Midterm Review, Master Notes Soc3750.docx

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University of Guelph
SOC 3750
Michelle Dumas

Midterm Review Week 1  Sociological perspectives (PS ch1) o Multilateralize – process by which government no longer monopolizes police and allows citizens to protect themselves o Functionalist perspective – studying how societies develop and maintain social order  Manifest functions – intended functions  Latent functions – unintended functions o EMILE DURKHEIM  Laws – reflect the norms of society, they are a consensus of the people on what is criminal and what is not  These laws reflect the values, hence different laws in different cultures  Mechanical Solidarity – glue that keeps us together, we have social order with this solidarity – mechanical happens in more primitive or small communities, or pre-industrial time  Organic Solidarity – happens in more modern society because we enter in a mutual interdependence – when one person breaks the law the machine doesn’t break down, the punishment is less violent and severe for punitive crimes o Conflict perspective – studying the competition that exists between groups, in any given society o Interactionism  Symbolic interactionism – a series of interactions with others which help individuals learn what is meant or symbolized  Interactionist perspective – studying police with a view to tease out the patterns and meanings that are created when individuals associate with each other  Comparative approach – analyzing information from the U.S. and at least one other country on various police topics  Metropolitan Police Act (peel’s 9 principles that guide the new force) o To prevent crime and disorder o Power of police dependent on public’s approval of police authority, and respect o That the public will respect the law o That the need to use force diminishes with the cooperation of the public o To preserve public favour by being impartial to the law, not to discriminate on any level, and by placing their lives on the line o Use force only when needed and if so, use only minimum force as possible o Maintain relationship with public that reminds them that police are the public and public are the police o To respect executive functions of jurisdiction o To recognize that absence of crime is better than visible police action as true indicator of police efficiency Week 2  Rank Structure o Typical rank structure of police department  Executive/upper management  Chief  Deputy  Superintendent  Middle management  Inspector  Staff sergeant  Sergeant  Rank and File  Constable o The Solicitor General in Ottawa is the minister responsible for federal policing o The provincial Attorneys and Solicitors General and Ministers of Justice are legally responsible for provincial and municipal policing o RCMP provide provincial policing in all but two provinces and municipal policing for most of these provinces and are therefore legally responsible for both provincial and municipal o RCMP are legally accountable to the federal Solicitors General, commanding officer of the division, and the commissioner of the force  Evolution of Policing o The Political/Industrial Era  USA  Politics dominated policing  Affected who was employed, promoted, made chief, and what services to be provided  Police had more discretion  Vague tasks, with order maintenance being primary  No official training  Police stability depended on political regime  Police often replace to reflect political regime  Reform occurred when too many police became corrupt when people of institutions wanted honest and efficient police  Canada  1850-1920 seen as introduction and expansion era, three important aspects: introduction of provincial policing systems in Ontario and Quebec, the growth and development of municipal policing, and the expansion and introduction of policing to the prairies and western Canada by the NWMP.  No political domination  Police focused on law enforcement, order maintenance, and service functions o The Legalistic/Reform/Modernization Era 1920-60’s  Dominated by legalistic model  Significant for its professionalization of policing  Main focus was crime prevention  The scientific approach o Science applied in Europe and North America – seen as professional approach o Bertillion developed first systematic identification procedure based on measurements, description of appearance, photograph, and fingerprints  The architects reform o Standardization of behaviour, training, professionalization and development of organizational policies and procedures o Vollmer was proponent of police service – introduced police education, vehicle patrols, and scientific crime detection, and founded first school of criminology in Chicago – his police department also was first to use forensic science o Wilson wrote Police administration, regarded as classic book, introduced new concepts on police deployment, disciplinary measures, and organizational structures  Technological change o Automobile allowed quick response, but distanced police from citizen o Two-way radio increased contact between police allowing more supervision o Telephone allowed citizen to reach police easier, making police more reactive – as a result it made police more focused on order maintenance and law enforcement  Criticisms o People argued that police in this era were becoming more detached from the community and had an impersonal attitude o Reform occurred through riots when people thought police refused to accept police role of reactive agent of government  Canada o Technological changes were copied from US o RCMP and metropolitan police became more bureaucratic and professionalized and embraced scientific approaches o No riots in Canada  Recap of organizational values in this era o Police authority entirely based on law o Communities assist police o Response to calls = high priority o Social problems are only responded to if there is threat o Police are the experts in crime control o The Service/Contingency/Crisis/Post/Reform/Community Era  USA  Development in these areas: policy development in discretion and accountability, selection criteria improvement for women and minorities, training in human relations, and community relations and crime prevention programs development  Research on police grew substantially in US and UK which allowed for more precise change in organizational management  Canada  Change was lagging behind and only caught up in the 1970’s o Community Policing Era  Promotes community relations and proactive policies that seek to resolve issues addressed by individual neighbourhoods  Role Debates o Bureaucratic or political  Concerns integration of police into democratic society with the bureaucratic approach viewing the role of police to be strictly controlled by a set of precise rules, polices and organizational procedures, while the political approach views the police as needing to be responsive to the demands of individual neighbourhoods and communities o Community norms or Law enforcement  Concerns the choices police and community make to address crime; should police evaluate decisions based crime and social disorder or let community make the decision? Differences in perceptions of what issues should be given priority is a topic of debate. Should police ignore certain issues or ‘overpolice’ others? o Profession or Craft?  Is policing either a rational, systematic undertaking that requires extensive formal preparation or commonsensical, with experience and tuition being the most important characteristics? In Canada, police are seen as profession because it requires formal education o Crime fighters or social workers  Is the role of police essentially crime fighting or addressing social issues that eventually might lead to crime? This debate arises because police use a majority of their time on order maintenance o Prevention or Apprehension  Should police and organization focus on prevention or apprehension? Preventative use resources for programs that bring community closer while apprehension departments only interact with the community when they are apprehending people o Proactive or Reactive  Proactive means cops initiate social order maintenance, and sometimes this can lead to invasion of privacy when cops initiate programs deep inside communities. Reactive means cops only respond situations and don’t take any initiative in crime fighting and order maintenance.  The Role of Police o There is a lack of written material about the role of police o Vagueness surrounds the role of police because their job encompasses a variety of different duties that change from day to do o “Impossible Mandate” – they have contradictions in their set rules and mission statement – you give officers supreme authority to use force when it is appropriate, at the same time they are told to engage in public service and be a good representative and talk and help to people in their daily lives, and at the same time we are expecting them to give public relations and present themselves in a excellent manner because they’re organization of police are depending on it, to also be respectful be boundful, and to be dealing with some of the worst people and attitudes that you can imagine – “to be a badass and a good person at the same time” o Evaluation- we have so much criteria to rate police on; use of force, abiding rules, public relation, community involvement o Law Enforcement  Responding to and investigating crimes, apprehending offenders and undertaking preventative patrols  Aggressive and punitive  Objective is law violation identification and processing within criminal justice system  Least ambiguous area with little ‘grey areas’ o Order Maintenance  Preventing, controlling, and regulating behavior which disturbs the public peace  When dealing with order and stability issues it revolves around “right and wrong” ex. Underage driving  Most forms of disorder are minor, therefore action is mild and slightly coercive  Police use discretion and must decide whether to negotiate, ‘criminalize’ or abandon the problem o Service  Service roles they provide, as a consequence of their 24-hour availability, includes crowd control, work with organizations, & schools, search missions, informing people of their loved ones death, public relations, and traffic maintenance  Critics argue that service role inflates job wages of police, reduces professionalization of police, and diverts them from law enforcement o Police are expected to keep balance of all three roles – most important being law enforcement- most officers admit they enjoy this aspect more than others  Research on Roles of Police o Police heavily fill role of service and order maintenance o Crime fighting is only small part of the role, 10-30% (Study showed 17% of reports were crime related, 83% were order and service related) o Uniformed police tend to be peace officers, while detectives or traffic officers tend to be law enforcers o Low key stuff consume vast amount of police time – dealing with barking dogs, or traffic violations, essentially ensuring order in society – debatable whether it includes arrests, charges – about 80% of officers job is spent on order maintenance o Image of police - thanks to news, movies, and shows, is that they fight crime all the time, when really they do not o Financially, image of police as crime fighters is important because it helps gather money and support for police programs  Politics of Police Role o Conservative  Sees police as highly disciplined, militaristic, bureaucratic force able to enforce with strict chain of command  Advocated greatly in 1950-60’s (Legalistic Era)  Ideology believes that criminal law boundary should not be trespassed, and that general and specific deterrence work o Liberal  Crime results from social influence and as such, society should be rehabilitate and to reform the individual  Ideally, police should be democratic service practicing authority by consent rather than by force o Radical  Police are institution of the state and agent of social control that operate for the interests of the elite groups in society  RCMP o Provides services on all three levels of government o Responsibilities outlined in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act of 1959 o RCMP has responsibility, and therefore jurisdiction, to enforce in all ten provinces and two territories, the federal statutes and protection of federal property (parliament buildings) o Only in Ontario and Quebec does RCMP not have provincial and municipal responsibilities o RCMP under direction of Solicitor General of Canada, he has, in order going down the ranks:  4 deputy commissioners & commanding officers  13 regional divisions  52 subdivisions  723 detachments o Mandate for RCMP – enforce Canadian laws, prevent crime, maintain peace, order and security o RCMP does not act alone, usually in conjunction with other police agencies o Operates and administrates several branches, National Crime Intelligence Branch and the Economic Crime Branch  Recruitment o Requirements of acceptance varies among police bodies  Education  Quebec requires graduation from community college as minimum  Most forces require grade 12 education or equivalent as minimum  Age  Minimum age requirement is between 18-21 with the maximum being from 35-65  Height and Weight  Very few forces have such criteria as it discriminates against women and minority groups; more popular in the past  Physical Performance  Wide degree of disparity in physical tests among police bodies  The Police Officers Physical Abilities Tests (POPAT) developed in Justice Institute of BC to provide standardized testing – includes 2km mobility/agility run, pull and push activity, modified squat thrust and stand station, a rail vault activity, and a weight carry of 45.5kg  RCMP has their own test called Physical Abilities Requirements Evaluation (PARE) and includes six-lap obstacle course, push and pull task, and carrying 36kg bag over 15m within a set time  Many police officers who passed these test 5 years ago cannot complete them today  Women tests should be based on women abilities, not men  Psychological Testing  61% of Police departments use this test  Psych tests are done to ensure police is stable in mental characteristics  Criticized for identifying poor candidates and not good prospects, also for its methodology problems in administering the tests, and finally there is much room for subjective analysis by psychologist grading the test  Common Canadian test is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the California Psychological Inventory  Background investigation  All police do background tests, except for some rural departments  Attempts to assess suitability for police work based on past experiences  Look at family ties, credit history, education record, criminal record, and other  In US background check is most important part of selection process; those with clean backgrounds have less incidence in police conduct  Interviews  Oral interviews measure speaking skills, confidence, interpersonal skills, and decision making skills  The interviews are where the most discrimination and subjective judgment occurs  Written Tests  Some police forces require candidates to undertake written tests, while others require IQ test; critics argue that these tests are culturally biased and now most police forces move away from these tests  Cognitive Tests  Otis Quick Scoring Intelligence Test or General Aptitude Test (GATB) are widely used across North America and have to pass in order to be recruited  Polygraph Tests  Measures three variables: breathing, blood pressure, and perspiration  Almost routine in municipal services to use this test  Use of test is generally to double check background information  Medical Exam  Full medical evaluation which, if one aspect may be aggravated by police work, determines whether you get in or get kicked out  Not a uniform process across Canada, some reduce the list, but generally there are two selection approaches: the multiple hurdle approach and the Compensatory approach  Multiple Hurdle Approach  Applicant must pass each test in order to go to the next one, and basically emphasizes the importance of each requirement  Compensatory Approach  Candidates can compensate for deficiencies in other areas with higher level abilities in other areas  Occupational Prestige o Message – more prestige means your special in society status o Variables – depends on certain factors like location, history, in the area o Scores (1970s) – police prestige is higher as time progresses – in the 70s that’s when it began to increased because it was associated with getting good education – Male, white, officers are said to have offered more prestige – those who apply also have members of family who are police officers o Minorities – over-representation of white male officers as applicants o Hard to get applicants because a lot of people don’t respect officers – more so in the US than Canada  Organizational Philosophies o “Force” vs. “Service” – in last two decades cop changed their image from police force to police service – because philosophy is overall identity of organization o Organizational philosophies – the philosophy shows and explains to society what the organization does, and how it conducts it self – this change from Force to Service started from the 1980’s, very deliberate shift o 1980’s shift in name change – it was in Canada and US – more than just semantics – conscious move into more community policing, being more proactive – reasons include the name sounding better, sounding less aggressive, also at the same time creating the shift into becoming more positively viewed by communities with community involvement eg. Randomized patrol, responding to house calls – some argue it was police “drama” that it was another step towards being more positive in the eyes of the community and society – it was seen to be very politically incorrect to be called police force these days o Policing: Organizational Philosophies o Service – Communication, Problem solving, Team, Conflict Resolution, Training, Crime Prevention, Higher levels of Education o Force – Crime fighting, Policing, Moral order with Sharp difference in Right Vs. Wrong, Social service Distinction  Promotion o Police system reluctant to endorse system of lateral entry where police officer can transfer from one police department to another without losing seniority, because they say it will not be effective o Only chiefs and deputies who get recruited from outside departments o Factors that affect promotion:  Rank structure and availability of positions in rank  Promotional Policy and whether it favours youth or seniority  Retirement Policy – earlier retirement allows more room for new positions  Growth generally creates new positions  Attrition means the number of people who leave the force  Personnel policy changes, for instance, adding or removing a rank will affect positions available  Size of the organization, means bigger organizations have easier promotions, and vice versa o Promotion for Sergeant/ Staff Sergeant  Requires two things just for consideration of promotion: sufficient years of service (2-5 years as constable, but in reality most have 11-15 years) and passing a promotional exam (based on questions of the law)  Candidates are then evaluated on,  Performance appraisals - conducted by supervisors  Promotional potential rating - which are calculated from performance appraisals  Seniority - can be a big influence, but not all embrace this value  Promotional board interview – conducted by 3-5 senior officers and can range from 20-60 minutes  Other factors – these are sometimes taken into consideration o Self-improvement activities, such as further education o Commendations, amount of sick leave days taken, number of complaints if any  Promotion for Sergeant/Staff sergeant to Inspector  Similar process as mentioned above  Less emphasis is placed on seniority  Promotion to Senior Management  Superintendent positions do not have formal criteria, rather, they are based on candidates track record, breadth of experience, and how well they fit in with the existing management team  Training o Basic Training: Four Models  1. Independent adult training - Separation of police training and education from mainstream adult education and provides training to recruits who have at least grade 12 education  2. Mixed training - Training takes place on university campus and teaches everything from administration and procedures to criminal justice and the law  3. Broad-based training - Recruits are taught everything encompassing the criminal justice system such as probation policing and court staff, as well as everything needed for basic training requirements  4. Fully integrated approach - Final model found only in Quebec integrates police education with adult education by enrolling first in 2 ½ year programs at college than complete ten-week course at the Quebec Police Institute o Basic training costs about $40,000 in 1991-92  Justice Institute of BC program  Block I: 14 weeks classroom  Block II: 8 weeks field training  Block III: 10 weeks classroom work & general duties  Block IV: 3 weeks classroom  Block V: one week classroom, then 3 years service allows eligibility to be promoted to constable  Ontario Police College program  Level I: 1-2 weeks field training  Level II: 60 days classroom teaching  Level III: 3 months field training  Level IV: 14 days classroom training  Level V: general duties  Level VI: optional training and 3 years service means eligibility for promotion to constable  RCMP Training program  Hired first, then given 26 week program at RCMP training academy in Regina  Two socialization processes occur:  Formal learning – in class about procedures and technical stuff  Informal learning – when interacting with older police and listening to their advice and stories  Field Training  6-12 weeks program that prepares officer for ‘real’ world experience by apprenticing an active cop  Problem occurs because the active cop usually tries to teach the rookie the ‘real’ world skills needed and it conflicts sometimes with what the academy teaches  Ongoing training  Supplementary training on topics such as fraud, cultural relations, domestic disputes, and child abuse  Is needed for promotion; some examples are, o In-service training – current and updated information on policing that are needed to function successfully o Multicultural training – teaches tolerance of other ethnicities and races o Supervisory training – for supervisor candidates o Specialized training – for things like homicide investigation, fingerprinting, and commercial crime o Management training – for those who are being promoted to manager  Both specialized and management training can occur in several places, but most well-known is the Canadian Police College in Ottawa o Criticisms of training  Brevity of training period – people wonder if police learn everything they need in just a couple of weeks  Content of training courses – police are given surface knowledge, but they need in-depth information on topics  Paramilitary focus – does it create dysfunctional policing?  Bias towards focus on law and technological side - and lack of social services and human relations role  Creates isolation from society - and causes social problems  Quality of instructions said to be dry, stale, and inappropriate Education  Should education requirements be higher for officers? Especially since more officers are asking for more education  Brain Vs. Braun – traditionally Braun was favoured over Brain – farm boys, military boys were more favoured for police work – they had great strength and ability to deal with criminals – professionalization of police means that it is seen as a profession, and it should require more education o Advantages – Education  Communication skills – better oral and written skills, are able to better talk to the public, better public relations skills as well – and better written report writing, allowing for more accurate detailed reports that help put the right criminals away, etc  Complaints – those officers with higher educations have less complaints against them – they also have better adaption skills, better abled to adapt to different assignments, positions, environments – more transferable and more like to be chosen for more work and translates to better promotion chances  Professionalization – perceived to be more professional with masters than just high school degree  Quicker promotion  Complexities – more likely to appreciate the complexities of the justice system, better able to understand “gray” areas of law enforcement  Style – better policing style, more charming, democratic and better persuasion skills and empathy skills o Disadvantages of Education  Perceptions – they are more likely to become disillusioned, they know so much about the job that they lose the thrill-factor – they understand that the job is mostly mundane tasks  Assignments – they request more and diverse assignments because it doesn’t satisfy their abilities  More likely to question orders, can cause problems  Citizens – they can be less sympathetic to citizens who are not willing to listen to the officers  Policing – made officers to soft, they are not tough enough, can be argued it can be detrimental to police officers o Buckley, McHinnis & Petrunik  Findings – looking at education and promotion, those with some secondary, education had no impact on job satisfaction but it did impact the police officers beliefs on their performance – those with university degree felt that they were professional and they had sense of entitlement – and when asked, they did feel superior or better than officers who did not have university degree – those without schooling said that those with university degrees were receiving undeserved promotions or advancements  Women police o History of women police in Canada  Started in Vancouver, and received no training  1952 they received same training as men but had restricted duties  1960’s they were removed from streets and given jobs within police station  1973 first women assigned to street patrol  1970’s RCMP begun to give serious consideration to women  1977 Parliament passed Human Rights Act prohibiting discrimination of sexes in workplace  Today women in police force are increasing but they are mostly concentrated in lower ranks o Barriers to policewomen  Barrier of tradition – tradition is that men are police not women  Barrier of credibility – women are not taken seriously  Barrier of assumptions – police women are seen to be less committed to policing as a career  Self-made barriers – women can limit their opportunities by underrating themselves and their abilities  Barrier of isolation – with little women in police force, women feel isolated and do not receive the same informal and formal socialization that men do o Effectiveness and benefits of policewomen  Reduction of violent incidents between police and citizens  Increase in police service quality  Improved police-community relations  Men learned tolerance of force from women  More effective problem solving for citizens who are women  Police departments become more democratic and responsive to community by employing women Week 3  Characteristics of Bureaucracy o Division of labour, Unity of Command, Supervision and subordination, Documentation, Training, Rules, Assign Work  Police Organization o Goals  Purpose of organization  Police have own goals as well as goals public wants them to fulfill  Specific goals ex. Crime prevention, or general ex. Foster community relations o Division of responsibilities & leadership  Hierarchy of supervision  Divisions within police organization determines jobs of police ex.drugs, homicide, o Rules and Norms  Guided by normal rules of policing just like every other bureaucracy  Guided by two sets of rules 1) Criminal Code of Canada (Government) 2) Guided also by own department rules (internally) o Authority Centre  Makes sure subordinates are doing job they are suppose to be doing o Written communication  Cops record everything they do  Purpose (function)  Act as a way to supervise those on patrol  Provides a permanent record should the events have to be reconstructed later  40-80% of police time i
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