SOC 3750 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Vagueness, Real Crime, Socioeconomic Status

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 3750
Midterm Review
Week 1
Sociological perspectives (PS ch1)
o Multilateralize process by which government no longer
monopolizes police and allows citizens to protect themselves
o Functionalist perspective studying how societies develop and
maintain social order
Manifest functions intended functions
Latent functions unintended functions
o EMILE DURKHEIM
Laws reflect the norms of society, they are a consensus of the
people on what is criminal and what is not
These laws reflect the values, hence different laws in different
cultures
Mechanical Solidarity glue that keeps us together, we have
social order with this solidarity mechanical happens in more
primitive or small communities, or pre-industrial time
Organic Solidarity happens in more modern society because
we enter in a mutual interdependence when one person
breaks the law the machine doesn’t break down, the
punishment is less violent and severe for punitive crimes
o Conflict perspective studying the competition that exists between
groups, in any given society
o Interactionism
Symbolic interactionism a series of interactions with others
which help individuals learn what is meant or symbolized
Interactionist perspective studying police with a view to
tease out the patterns and meanings that are created when
individuals associate with each other
Comparative approach analyzing information from the U.S.
and at least one other country on various police topics
Metropolitan Police Act (peel’s 9 principles that guide the
new force)
o To prevent crime and disorder
o Power of police dependent on public’s approval of police authority,
and respect
o That the public will respect the law
o That the need to use force diminishes with the cooperation of the
public
o To preserve public favour by being impartial to the law, not to
discriminate on any level, and by placing their lives on the line
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o Use force only when needed and if so, use only minimum force as
possible
o Maintain relationship with public that reminds them that police are
the public and public are the police
o To respect executive functions of jurisdiction
o To recognize that absence of crime is better than visible police action
as true indicator of police efficiency
Week 2
Rank Structure
o Typical rank structure of police department
Executive/upper management
Chief
Deputy
Superintendent
Middle management
Inspector
Staff sergeant
Sergeant
Rank and File
Constable
o The Solicitor General in Ottawa is the minister responsible for
federal policing
o The provincial Attorneys and Solicitors General and Ministers of
Justice are legally responsible for provincial and municipal policing
o RCMP provide provincial policing in all but two provinces and
municipal policing for most of these provinces and are therefore
legally responsible for both provincial and municipal
o RCMP are legally accountable to the federal Solicitors General,
commanding officer of the division, and the commissioner of the
force
Evolution of Policing
o The Political/Industrial Era
USA
Politics dominated policing
Affected who was employed, promoted, made chief, and
what services to be provided
Police had more discretion
Vague tasks, with order maintenance being primary
No official training
Police stability depended on political regime
Police often replace to reflect political regime
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Reform occurred when too many police became corrupt
when people of institutions wanted honest and efficient
police
Canada
1850-1920 seen as introduction and expansion era,
three important aspects: introduction of provincial
policing systems in Ontario and Quebec, the growth and
development of municipal policing, and the expansion
and introduction of policing to the prairies and western
Canada by the NWMP.
No political domination
Police focused on law enforcement, order maintenance,
and service functions
o The Legalistic/Reform/Modernization Era 1920-60’s
Dominated by legalistic model
Significant for its professionalization of policing
Main focus was crime prevention
The scientific approach
o Science applied in Europe and North America
seen as professional approach
o Bertillion developed first systematic
identification procedure based on
measurements, description of appearance,
photograph, and fingerprints
The architects reform
o Standardization of behaviour, training,
professionalization and development of
organizational policies and procedures
o Vollmer was proponent of police service
introduced police education, vehicle patrols, and
scientific crime detection, and founded first
school of criminology in Chicago his police
department also was first to use forensic science
o Wilson wrote Police administration, regarded as
classic book, introduced new concepts on police
deployment, disciplinary measures, and
organizational structures
Technological change
o Automobile allowed quick response, but
distanced police from citizen
o Two-way radio increased contact between police
allowing more supervision
o Telephone allowed citizen to reach police easier,
making police more reactive as a result it made
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Document Summary

Sociological perspectives (ps ch1: multilateralize process by which government no longer monopolizes police and allows citizens to protect themselves, functionalist perspective studying how societies develop and maintain social order. Latent functions unintended functions: emile durkheim. Laws reflect the norms of society, they are a consensus of the people on what is criminal and what is not. These laws reflect the values, hence different laws in different cultures. Mechanical solidarity glue that keeps us together, we have social order with this solidarity mechanical happens in more primitive or small communities, or pre-industrial time. Symbolic interactionism a series of interactions with others which help individuals learn what is meant or symbolized. Interactionist perspective studying police with a view to tease out the patterns and meanings that are created when individuals associate with each other. Comparative approach analyzing information from the u. s. and at least one other country on various police topics. Rank structure: typical rank structure of police department.

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