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Midterm

Midterm 1 Textbook Notes.pdf

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 3750
Professor
Michelle Dumas

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Description
SOC*3750▯ Policing and Society: Midterm 1 Review▯ ▯ Week 1: CHAPTER 1: PERSPECTIVES ON THE POLICE (PS)▯ ▯ - policing has become multi-lateralized: ▯ - governments no longer monopolize the provision of police services to the public▯ - many groups in society have chosen to protect themselves▯ - policing is still a governmental agency:▯ - although certain areas choose to protect themselves, the governmental agency will remain the final resort for crime-fighting purposes▯ - residual powers that threaten to harm the public/violate the law remain with governmental police agents▯ ▯ Sociology and Police Studies▯ - sociology: seem as a way of understanding and explaining historical transformations systematically and as a means for social reform and renewal since it solved the problems associated with these changes▯ - pure sociology: study and describe society and social behaviour ▯ - applied sociology: delineate problems that afflict society and test solutions for them ▯ - study police organizations and personnel for the purpose of understanding how and why they behave as they do▯ - sociological imagination: study the influence that society has on the individual, connect individual behaviour to social structure and the culture that produced it▯ - theory: set of inter-related propositions that allow for the systemization of knowledge, explanation, and prediction of social brutality ▯ - hypothesis: tentative statement that suggests how two classes of phenomena may be connected or related▯ ▯ Understanding the Police in Society▯ ▯ Functionalism: Police and Social Order▯ - major focus: studying and understanding how societies develop and maintain social order▯ - all institutions are needed in order for society to function▯ - examine behaviours and interactions and how they contribute to the effective functioning of society▯ - application to the police:▯ - by engaging with children early in life, they establish a sense of trust and the importance of obeying the law▯ - manifest functions: obvious and intended▯ - latent functions: less obvious and unanticipated▯ ▯ Conflict: Whose Side Are Police On?▯ - major focus: competition that exists between groups, examine societies to figure out which groups control scarce resources, who benefits from the status quo▯ - social change is functional, necessary, and beneficial▯ - application to the police:▯ - conflict theorists note that law enforcement is usually directed and aimed at the poor and powerless in society▯ - many police departments have units especially for robbery/burglary, but not corporate crime▯ ▯ Interactionism: Understanding the Meanings of Police Interaction▯ - micro level analysis: attention to the more specifies settings and details ▯ - socialization: the process by which individuals learn, from their surroundings and the people around them ▯ - main focus: focuses on the interactions between people, and how we shape ourselves through these interactions, symbols, and meanings ▯ - application to the police:▯ - do not respond to every instance of offending behaviour and label it as criminal, use discretion▯ - reality is constructed through series of social interactions and individual interpretations based on these interactions▯ ▯ International Perspectives on Police▯ - globalization: increasing interconnectedness of the economies, peoples, and the politics of various countries▯ - comparative/cross-national approach: to study police, analyze information from the USA and at least one other country▯ - studying police practices in other countries allows us to extend our knowledge of various possibilities ▯ - refuse to accept certain problems as unsolvable ▯ - develop greater insights into human behaviour ▯ - two questions when studying police:▯ - the effect of police in society▯ - effect of society on the police▯ - considering the experiences of other countries allows us to increase our own chances for - success ▯ by studying the police forces of other countries, we get a better perspective on our own ▯ ▯ Week 1: PEEL’S 9 PRINCIPLES (p. 17-19, IPC)▯ ▯ Sir Robert Peel and the Principles of Policing▯ - introduced legislation in English Parliament to establish a police force in London▯ - 9 principles to guide the new force:▯ - prevent crime and disorder as an alternative to their repression by military force and by severity of legal punishment ▯ - to recognize always that the power of the police to fulfill their functions and duties is dependent on public approval of their existence, actions, and behaviour, and on their ability to secure and maintain public respect▯ - to recognize always that to secure and maintain the respect and approval of the public also means the securing of the willing cooperation of the public in the task of securing observance of laws▯ - to recognize always that the extent to which the cooperation of the public can be secured diminishes, proportionately, the necessity of the use of physical force and compulsion for achieving police objectives▯ - to seek and preserve public favour, not be pandering to public opinion, but be constantly demonstrating absolutely impartial service in law, in complete independence of policy and with regard to justice and injustices of the substance of individual laws; by readily offering individual service and friendship to all members of the public without regard to their wealth or social standing; by ready exercise of courtesy and friendly good humour; and by ready offering of sacrifice in protesting and preserving life▯ - to use physical force only when the exercise of persuasion, advice, and warning is found to be insufficient to obtain public cooperation to an extent necessary to secure observance of law to restore order; and to use only the minimum degree of physical force which is necessary on any particular occasion for achieving a police objective▯ - to maintain at all times a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being the only members of the public who are paid to give full time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen, in the interests of community welfare and existence▯ - to recognize always the need for strict adherence to public executive functions, and to refrain from even seeming to usurp the powers of the judiciary or avenging individuals or the state, and from authoritatively judging guilt or punishing guilty▯ - to recognize always that the test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder and not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with them▯ - the public still put up resistance towards the police▯ - policies that were instrumental in facilitating the acceptance of the police:▯ - the police established a bureaucratic and hierarchical chain of command. Police officers were recognized as operating under tight, internal organizational controls▯ - the police were seen to be administered under well-articulated legal constraints. The rule of law was a prime characteristic of police operations▯ - the police were established to be nonpartisan and insulated from direct political control▯ - the strategy of minimum force and the absence of weapons other than the “trucheon” (baton) helped officers gain credibility▯ - the image of the police as a 24 hour service did much to promote the legitimacy and acceptance▯ - the preventative role of policing was stressed over the law enforcement one ▯ ▯ Week 2▯ ▯ Evolution of Policing (p. 54-60, IPC)▯ ▯ The Image of Policing▯ - public generally accepts the image of policing as one synonymous with crime fighting▯ - can be attributed to “fighting the ‘war on crime’,” media▯ - demands on the police have created “the impossible mandate”▯ - cannot satisfy the groups that influence their task▯ - in trying to respond to the demands, the police play up the heroic aspects of their work▯ ▯ The Evolution of Policing▯ - role development ▯ - Rpberg and Kuykendall: three distinct models of USA policing from 1830-present▯ - political model (mid 1800s-1920s)▯ - legalistic model (1920s-1960s)▯ - service/contingency model (late 1960s-present)▯ - Kelling and Moore: three phases of policing:▯ - the political phase (1840s-early 1900s)▯ - the reform phase (1930s-late 1970s)▯ - the community phase (1980-present)▯ - McDowell: precise interpretation:▯ - political era (1884-1914)▯ - reform era (1914-1968)▯ - post-reform era (1968-present)▯ - Dantzker: six categories:▯ - colonial (1700-1820s)▯ - pre-industrial (1820s-1850s)▯ - industrial (1850s-1920s)▯ - modernization (1920s-1960s)▯ - crisis (1960s-1980s)▯ - today (1990s)▯ - all authors base their analysis on the historical development of policing in the US▯ ▯ The Political/Industrial Era▯ - a time when the USA was politically dominated, politics influenced all aspects of law - enforcement ▯ early officers only had vague ideas of what they were supposed to do (order maintenance the primary task)▯ - no official training: given a gun and badge▯ - political and economic corruption became a wide-scale problem within police departments▯ - reforms begin at the beginning of the 20th century: religious leaders, civic-minded business, and professional people argue for more honest and efficient system- movement to a more bureaucratic system ▯ - Canada: development of policing from mid-nineteenth century to 1920s characterized by three things:▯ - introduction of provincial policing systems in Ontario and Quebec▯ - growth and development of municipal policing▯ - expansion and introduction of policing to the prairies and western Canada by the NWMP▯ - unlike USA, historical accounts do not illustrate political domination/widespread corruption▯ ▯ The Legalistic/Reform/Modernization Era▯ - the most significant period in the development of policing as it established the foundations for the professionalization of law enforcement▯ - the scientific approach:▯ - apply science to police work▯ - Alphonse Bertillion on identifying suspects:▯ - precise physical measurements▯ - description of distinguishing features▯ - photograph▯ - fingerprints▯ - the first systematic process of record keeping for suspects (still exists today)▯ - the architects of reform:▯ - public administration grew as police officers and private sectors adopted principles▯ - standardization of behaviour, training, professionalization, development of organizational policies and procedures▯ - technological reform:▯ - facilitated the development of a more professional police▯ - automobile, two way radio, telephone▯ - legalistic era:▯ - police authority is based on law. Professional police departments have the enforcement of law as their primary objective▯ - communities assist the police to enforce the law by providing information▯ - responding to citizens’ calls is the highest police priority. All calls should be responded to in the fastest way possible. ▯ - social problems and other neighbourhood issues are only of concern to the police if they threaten public order ▯ - the police are the experts in crime control and as such should be the ones entrusted with developing priorities and strategies▯ ▯ The Service/Contingency/Crisis/Post Reform/Community Era▯ - legalistic era tended to isolate police from the community- recommendations aimed to address the isolation- closer relationship between the public and the police ▯ - changes in three areas of the police department:▯ - policy development▯ - selection and training▯ - management and administration▯ ▯ Community Policing Era▯ - police organizations should not operate in isolation, should be sympathetic to the community, initiate policies that the community desires▯ - shift away from legalistic era, partnership between the police and the public▯ ▯ Role of Policing (p. 60-65, IPC)▯ ▯ Role Debates▯ - -ureaucratic/political:▯ bureaucratic:▯ - integration of police into a democratic society▯ - role of policing controlled by strict rules, policies, and organizational procedures▯ - consistency between all police departments, little room for individual approach▯ - fails to recognize that the nature of society is diverse and each neighbourhood is different ▯ - political:▯ - police need to be responsive to the demands of individual neighbourhoods and communities▯ - movement from legalistic era to community recognizes that the police should not use a “one size fits all approach,” but should tailor to the demands of the community▯ - community norms or law enforcement:▯ - choices that officers and communities need to make as a result of the bureaucratic/political role debate▯ - should the police decide which issues are the most important to deal with, or should the community?▯ - should police ignore certain offences because they are not deemed problematic to the community?▯ - profession or craft:▯ - whether or not policing is a profession or a craft▯ - either a rational, systematic undertaking with extensive formal preparation (formal) or a common-sensical role with experience and intuition being the most important (craft(▯ - moving towards professionalization rather than a craft▯ - to distinguish a profession from an occupation:▯ - prolonged membership, requirements for higher education, specialized training, controls for training, controls over licensing, developed rhetoric, shared perspective and belief that work is worthy of a high self-esteem▯ - crime fighter or social worker:▯ - is the role of police to fight crime or to focus on broader issues and events?▯ - proportion of officer’s time spent on crime is relatively small compared to the multitude of tasks they complete during the day ▯ - legalistic to community era:▯ - legalistic: crime fighting is stressed▯ - community: recognition of the social service aspect of police▯ - prevention or apprehension:▯ - management concerns of officers▯ - should officers and organizational management focus on prevention or apprehension of crime?▯ - prevention implies police-community interaction, the public feels closer ties with the police▯ - legalistic era: apprehension▯ - community era: prevention▯ - proactive or reactive:▯ - reactive policing: when the police respond to a specific request of a citizen (legalistic era)▯ - proactive policing: police-initiated activities, example: give traffic ticket or initiating a crime- prevention program (community)▯ ▯ Role Debate▯ ▯ Development Era Legalistic Era Community Era Bureaucratic/Political Political▯▯ ▯ Bureaucratic Political Community/Law Community Law Enforcement Community Enforcement Profession/Craft Craft Craft Profession Crime Fighter/Social Social Worker Crime Fighter Social Worker Worker Prevention/ Prevention Apprehension Prevention Apprehension Proactive/Reactive Proactive Reactive Proactive ▯ Police Role (p. 51-52, IPC)▯ ▯ The Police Role: Order Maintenance, Law Enforcement, or Service?▯ - order maintenance:▯ - preventing and controlling behaviour which disturbs public peace▯ - police regulate, conduct, and correct behaviour seen to promote disorder▯ - police make judgements and resolve incidents ▯ - law enforcement:▯ - responding to, and investigating crimes, apprehending officers, and undertaking preventative roles▯ - aggressive and punitive: identification of law violators and initial processing within the criminal justice system ▯ - service:▯ - those who endorse this role state that it generates a good will towards the police: important for gaining information useful for combatting traditional crimes▯ - prevents professionalization of police and diverts attention away from primary role (law enforcement)▯ ▯ RCMP (p. 35-37, IPC)▯ ▯ Federal Policing Today▯ - federal responsibilities organized under the authority of the RCMP Act of 1959▯ - provincial and municipal responsibilities in all provinces/territories except Ontario and Quebec▯ - mandate is to enforce Canadian laws, prevent crime, and maintain peace, order, and security:▯ - prevention and detection of offences against federal statutes▯ - prevention, detection, and investigation of crimes and maintenance of law and order in the - provinces, territories, and municipalities under contract ▯ the provision of investigative and protective services to protected persons and other federal - does not work in isolation, but in conjunction with other agencies▯ ▯ Recruitment (p. 74-79, IPC)▯ ▯ Selection▯ - establish effective screening methods▯ ▯ Hiring Criteria and Methods▯ - police departments develop their own selection criteria▯ - written exams, oral interviews, special skills assessment, personality tests, cognitive ability tests, education and physical fitness tests▯ ▯ Education▯ - most forces require a minimum of grade 12 ▯ - constable with only grade 12 is rare ▯ ▯ Age ▯ - minimum 18-21▯ - maximum 35-65▯ ▯ Height and Weight▯ - few forces have such criteria▯ - weight must be in proportion to height▯ ▯ Physical Performance▯ - Police Officer’s Physical Abilities Test (POPAT)▯ - developed in BC to standardize measures of fitness, health, and physical ability▯ - 2 km mobility/agility run▯ - push and pull activity▯ - modified squat thrust and stand station rail vault activity▯ - weight carry of 45.5 kg▯ - Ontario Police College: own test▯ - 2.4 km run ▯ - sit and reach flexibility test ▯ - 100m sprint▯ - maximum number of sit-ups in 1 minute▯ - maximum number of push-ups in 1 minute▯ - RCMP: Physical Abilities Requirements Evaluation (PARE)▯ - 6 lap obstacle course▯ - pushing and pulling task▯ - carrying of a 36 kg torso bag over 15m in a set time▯ ▯ Psychological Testing▯ - to be an officer: one needs a number of stable, innate characteristics best measured by these tests▯ - most commonly used in Canada: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and California Psychological Inventory▯ - room for subjective interpretation by the psychologist ▯ ▯ Background Investigation▯ - attempts to access candidate’s general suitability for police work based on past experience and life style▯ - checks family ties, employment, and credit history, educational record, criminal record▯ ▯ Interviews▯ - oral interviews measure communication skills, confidence, interpersonal skills, and decision- making ability▯ ▯ Written Tests▯ - recently challenged as culturally biased, discriminatory, and not job-related▯ - movement away from such testing ▯ ▯ Cognitive Tests▯ - have to pass in order to be considered for recruitment ▯ ▯ Polygraph Tests▯ - measures physiological response to questions ▯ - three variables:▯ - breathing▯ - blood pressure▯ - perspiration▯ - uncover aspects of an individual’s character which are deemed undesirable to a police career▯ ▯ -edical Exam▯ - determine general health status▯ multiple hurdle approach, compensatory approach▯ ▯ Multiple Hurdle Approach▯ - requires the candidate to pass each of the selection criteria before passing onto the next one ▯ - criteria are ranked, failure to pass one means being rejected for the position▯ ▯ -ompensatory Approach▯ compensate for deficiencies in certain areas by having abilities in others ▯ ▯ Assessment Centres▯ - can be used for recruit selection, personnel development, promotion▯ ▯ Training (p. 80-86, IPC)▯ ▯ Training▯ - supervisors need to be confident that members of their staff have fundamental skills and knowledge of both technological operations and human relations side of police work▯ ▯ Basic Training▯ - gives recruits instruction on a number of topics deemed relevant to their duties as generalists▯ - four models of basic training:▯ - 1. separation of police education and training from mainstream adult education, training to recruits with minimum grade 12 education, in institutions which are separate and independent (example: RCMP Academy in Regina, and Ontario Police College)▯ - 2. training takes place on university campuses, police staff provide classes on police administration and procedures, academic staff give classes on criminal justice and social services, and lawyers and judges teach classes on criminal law, evidence, and procedure (example: Saskatchewan Police College on University of Regina campus, Atlantic Police Academy at Holland College in PEI)▯ - 3. assumption that police recruits should be exposed to the entire criminal justice system rather than being isolated, provides training for police officers, probation officers, institutional personnel and court staff (example: Justice Institute of British Columbia)▯ - 4. found only in Quebec, integrate police education with adult education, enroll in provincially organized 2 1/2 year college programs that include classes on criminology, law, and policing in addition to general topics, following 2 1/2 years, complete a 10 week course at the Quebec Police Institute in Nicolet▯ - BC: recruits are hired by the department and then trained”▯ - Block I: 14 weeks in the classroom▯ - Block II: 8 weeks of field training▯ - Block III: 10 weeks of classroom work and then general duties (year one)▯ - Block IV: 3 weeks in the classroom (year 2)▯ - Block V: one week in the classroom and three years service establish eligibility for promotion to the rank of first class constable▯ - Ontario: hired by agency and training is completed at OPC▯ - Level I: 1-2 weeks field training (individual agency)▯ - Level II: 60 days classroom teaching ▯ - Level III: 3 months field training▯ - Level IV: 14 days classroom training▯ - Level V: general duties▯ - Level VI: optional specialized training at the college and three years service establishes eligibility for promotion to the rank of first class constable▯ - RCMP: hires individuals, requires completion of 26 week basic training in Regina, followed by 6 months field training, then eligible to become a peace officer▯ - formal socialization: selection and training programs, organizational policies and procedures learned from supervisors▯ - informal socialization: when recruits interact with older, more experienced officers and their peers▯ ▯ Field Training▯ - well-qualified, experienced officers train and act as mentors for new recruits▯ - prepares the recruit for the “real world”▯ ▯ Ongoing Training▯ - provides supplementary training on topics (fraud, cultural relations, domestic disputes, child abuse, and drug investigation)▯ - social, legal, and cultural changes continually occur- officers need to keep abreast of such changes ▯ - inservice training: regularly update members of a department with information necessary for them to function successfully▯ - multicultural training: teaches officers to be sensitive tot he ethnic and cultural diversities that exist in Canada▯ - supervisory training: geared to officers in first-line supervisory positions (sergeant and staff sergeant): topics on leadership behaviour, policies, and procedures▯ - specialized training: prepares officers for specific tasks: homicide investigation, fingerprinting, commercial crime▯ - management training: for officers who move beyond first line supervisory position and require leadership skills▯ ▯ Questions Surrounding Police Training▯ - - brevity: training can be as brief as six weeks: is this a sufficient period of time?▯ content of training courses: some subjects are not dealt with in sufficient depth, only surface knowledge on some subjects▯ - paramilitary focus: functional or dysfunctional, not alike, yet police training stresses discipline and obedience (great deal of work relies on discretion)▯ - biased towards law side of policing: not enough focus on the social service side of policing▯ - isolation: academies are isolated, requiring total commitment, conformity, and loyalty▯ - quality of instructors: instructors need both the ability to communicate effectively, and practical recent experience to educate with▯ - community policing philosophy: endorses a broader role for police officers, training has been reluctant to respond to this, slow to offer training in community policing▯ ▯ Higher Education (p. 90-91, IPC)▯ - growing recognition that police need to be better educated ▯ - minimum requirement for most agencies remains at grade 12, but most new recruits have a university/college education▯ - need for officers to hold a degree is tied to the new concept of professionalism ▯ - advantages of officers with better education:▯ - better communication with the public, more articulate, better interpersonal skills▯ - improved written skills, better quality reports▯ - better performance▯ - fewer citizen complaints▯ - show more initiative, more adaptive to changes and new approaches in policing▯ - more professional, stronger attitudes towards professional status ▯ - more likely to be promoted, treat policing as a career, not a job▯ - show more sensitivity, flexibility, and discretion in dealing with different racial groups▯ - better decision makers▯ - appreciate complexities of criminal justice system, better understanding of police position▯ - more job satisfaction, see job from a broader perspective ▯ - disadvantages of officers with better education:▯ - more likely to leave policing due to disillusionment ▯ - more likely to request reassignment ▯ - question orders and organizational policies▯ - higher educational requirements give minority groups a disadvantage (tend to have lower educational qualifications)▯ - better educated officers are less sympathetic to problems faced by individuals in lower socio-economic class, less likely to identify with them ▯ - less job satisfaction: not challenged enough, harder time fitting in with para-military structure of organization▯ ▯ Women (p. 94-97, IPC)▯ ▯ Policewomen in Canada▯ - little is known about historical development of women in policing▯ Year▯ Male▯ ▯ Female % Female 1965 29,965 181 0.6% 1970 37,759 190 0.5% 1975 47,188 525 1.1% 1980 48,794 1,047 2.2% 1985 48,538 1,813 3.6% 1990 52,461 3,573 6.4% 1992 52,705 4,286 7.5%
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