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Zoology Midterm Review.doc

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ZOO 2090
Fred Laberge

Zoology Midterm Review: -NO OLD MIDTERMS: do not use anything from last year; last years exam was made by a different teacher therefore any of his old midterms are completely different only thing similar -40 QUESTIONS 20 multiple choice, 20 short answer questions -some hard questions (short answer), some easy (lecture slides) -everything is just from lecture notes (taken from different pats of the textbook- use to elaborate) -50 min long midterm -12 lectures (structure and function)  how did they evolve together Lecture 1: origin of chordates • Fill in objectives • What are the anatomical characteristics that all chordates share (name them and give function) • Where they came from • Living protochordates • Discuss controversy surrounding chordate function (evolutionary pattern)  know hypothesis and what they are  morphology, ancestry  homology (share common ancestors (human hand, bird wing)) and analogy (same function (not common ancestors)  adaptation  exaptation • Chordate phylum and its close relative’s  kingdom – phylum (sub phyla) – class (sub class) – order – family – genes – species • Chordates have many subphyla  vertebrates = subphylum vertebrata • Chordates: uro – and sephalo- chordate (uro are more basal groups) • Urochodates = tail = larval from had tails • Sephlo = head = amphioxus/ branchiostoma • Before chordate: chymodermata (star fish, sea cucumbers = invertebrates) and hemichordate (half) –together these are: • Different ways of evolving thing converging/diverging • Paraphyletic : do not share an immediate common ancestor • Monophyletic: share a common ancestor : linear fashion • Concepts of monophyletic : know its definition • Name the 4 chordate characters • Larval form; each one of the features and what it does • Notochord • MAKE A CHART • Post anal tail: some don’t have a tail (sea squirts don’t have a tail when they are adults) involved in swimming • Echinoderms • Protochordates • Hemichordates (acorn worms) = half chordates = shares gill slits and similar molecular s2tructure • Sessile (attached, grounded) • Amphioxus • Marine suspension feeders: know the three groups and what they do • Competing hypothesis KNOW THEM AND WHY (SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS) -annelids/arthropod ancestor( nerve cord is ventral) but in chordates this flips (nerve cord is dorsal= hollow), segmentation ( along the body, easily seen in worms have same number of organs) - form of a chymoderm larval ancestor (sea urchins larval stage) = have a different body than adults (radically symmetrical) -echinoderm’s were part of deutristoma due to blastopore opening (this decided protostomes or deutostomes classification) -body or axial inversion • Fossils- very few show evolution Lecture 2: • Know stuff on the lecture outline !!!! • Features that lead to major evolutional transition • How they were able to adapt to their conditions • A lot of evidences through fossils, phylogenetic approach • List major vertebrate groups • What’s basal/ primitive vs. advanced/ derived (basal= basic characteristics -- > not less derived or evolved) • Do not use words like lower, higher, use basal, advanced • More vertebrate innovations (know these 5) • Vertebrate column • Cranium / brain case • Jaws, limbs, eggs, amnion (some had these and some didn’t) and head • Body and spines coming off, what kind of spines, there is a body and spines coming out • What are the vertebrates replacing (notochord: gelatinous structure), vertal column is replacing what? • Cartilage is what connected the bones • Head: know where it derives from; spinal cord, and brain = derived from neural crest cells( gives rise to the sense organs • Neural plate= makes a groove and 2 bumps (gives rise to the nerve cord) • Jaws= muscular pharynx and what it does (function) agnates= filter feeding, sucking things out, not actively chewing), muscular mouth, jaws (gnathostomes = allowed for predation) • Limbs are very important for crawling into land - - > have common plan  adaptation to their surroundings and to defeat prey • Egg= allowed these animals to be completely devoid of water, don’t need to be in water as long as you have a shell and an amnion  has a yolk allowing for development of the baby – membrane chordian and allantois to ensure animals away from water • Some amphibians laid eggs on land= they needed moisture (lay eggs on wet surface) • Know all of the classes • Reptilian and avis • KNOW DIAGRAM WITH COLOURED MONKEY ETC (everything else had bo
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