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Comparison Chart.docx

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University of Guelph
ZOO 2090
Fred Laberge

Agnathans Chondrichthyes (sharks) Osteichthyes (bony fishes) (lungfishes) External Morphology 1. Caudal fin is 1. Caudal fin is 1. Caudal fin is diphycercal diphycercal. heterocercal (vertebrae (vertebrate extend to tip of 2. Pelvic fin is absent extend into upper lobe of tail and the tail is tail making it longer) symmetrical and longer) 2. Pelvic fins usually 2. Pelvic fins usually posterior anterior 3. Scales are absent 3. Placoid scales 3. Ctenoid scales 4. Circular jawless oral 4. Cartilaginous jaw 4. Bony Jaw disc lined with orange papillae Integument 1. No scales present 1. Separate dermal 1. Overlapping dermal placoid scales (hooked) cosmoid, ganoid, cycloid or ctenoid scales 2. Connective tissue of 2. Dermis is divided into 2. Dermally derived scales dermis is orange stratum spongiosum on are present (orange) in the top, then stratum dermis, which project compactum (green-like) towards the surface of the skin 3. Brown 3. Brown chromoatophores chromoatophores are present in dermis 4. There is a definite epidermis/dermis division 5. Epidermis has dark- stained epithelial cells and pale unicellular glands (mucous glands) Function of Integument 1. Mucous glands 1. Placoid scales are 1. Has brown make it extremely directed only one way to chromoatophores turning it slimy compared to keep it moving forward brown other fishes (hydrodynamic purposes) Skeleton 1. Made up of 1. Cartilaginous 1. Bony cartilage 2. Jaw suspension is 2. Jaw suspension is 2. No jaw present hyostylic hyostylic or autostylic 3. Arcualia plates 3. Vertebral column 3. Large number of bones surrounding the protects spinal cord and in the skull, most of them notochord assists in locomotion, belonging to the 4. Branchial basket allowing sharks to swim dermatocranium provides support for with a pendulum like gills movement 4. The trunk has transfers processes, little projections out of the middle, which house organs 5. Pectoral girdle is U- shaped Digestive System 1. A very small 1. Stomach is typically J stomach or no shaped stomach at all (slow 2. Short intestine with 2. Long with no spiral valve but continuous spiral valve in lumen feeder) (increases surface area to 2. Long intestine increase nutrient (brown in colour) absorption) 3. Has a rectal gland 3. Does not have a rectal 4. Two lobed liver 4. Liver has two lobes and gland (stained green) is VERY large (increases 4. Liver has three lobes byoyancy b/c it is filled 5. Has a swim bladder with oil which is lighter than water) 5. Does not have a swim bladder 6. No stomach present 6. A very large stomach (J shaped) Respiratory System 1. Pouched gills 1. Septal gills 1. Opercular gills 2. When the lamprey 2. Five pairs of gill slits 2. Five pairs of gill slits is feeding it contracts 3. The first gill slit usuallprotected by an operculum its gill muscles to becomes spiracles 3. No spiracle move water in and out opening behind the eye of gill chambers to provide oxygen for their gill filaments. 3. Water flows 4 . Water enters through 4. Water flows into the through the mouth the mouth into the mouth by a very effective into the respiratory pharynx, to the spiracles, pumping system, in which tube (when the animal and flows over the gills the operculum (bony flap is not feeding). and out the external gill that covers the gills) is Internal gill slits lead slits. involved. When the fish from the respiratory mouth is open the tube to gill pouches operculum closes and where water then water flows into the leaves through the mouth. When the mouth is external gill slits. closed the operculum opens and water is free to flow over the gills. Heart 1. Conus arteriosus is 1. Conus arteriosus is 1. Conus arteriosus is a post-heart chamber present absent which is present 2. S shaped, located in 2. Heart is located closer to 2. Heart is located in head region, very small the head region front of the liver Urogenital System 1. Retina lacks cones 1. Retina has double cones, 2. Accommodate for near joined to one another. vision by moving lens 2. Accommodate for closer to retina distance vision by moving 3. Ampullae of Lorenzini lens further from retina are present 3. Ampullae of Lorenzini absent 4. No genital ducts 4. Male genital duct 4. The male genital duct connects anterior part of has no connection to the the genital kidney kidney 5. Oviducts are not 5. Oviducts are connected connected to ovaries to ovaries 6. A small number of 6. A large number of small large eggs with plenty of eggs with little yolk yolk 7. Fertilization is 7. Fertilization is internal 7. Fertilization is external external 8. Testes appear as two 8. The testes appear as 8. Gonads are fused lobes near the scrambled eggs, and are midline (close esophagus. The ovaries in rather large in size. resemblance to the female sharks are also intestines). The testes near the esophagus. are smooth while the ovaries are granular Brain 1. Located close to 1. Has LARGE olfactory 1. Has SMALL olfactory olfactory organ and lobes and cerebrum with lobes cerebrum with LARGE pituitary tube SMALL optic lobes and optic lobes and cerebellum cerebellum 2. Has restiform bodies 2. No restiform bodies Amphibians Reptiles Mammals (cats) (Salamander/Frog) (bird/turtle) External Morphology 1. Horns are permanent structures of skin covered in keratinized cells surrounding the bone (Buffalos, Impalas) 2. Pronghorns are found on pronghorn antelopes, where the outer layer is shed annually (stratum corneum) leaving only bone 3. Antlers are temporary structures, and the skin is removed when antlers are fully grown, leaving only bone. 4. Claws, armadillo armour, pangalin, quills, fur, hair etc. Body Musculature 1. Not as much 1. Birds have a keel pronounced segmentation for a large chicken 2. Epaxial muscles = breast muscle dorsalis tunci attachment to allow 3. Hypaxial muscles = for long powered ventral to vertebral column flight 4. Three lateral layers 2. Muscles in the support the body wall, dermis are smooth these FIBERS CRISS CROSS muscles called 5. Elaborate musculature is arrector pili muscles important in locomotion which attach to the and a variety of bas
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