Study Guides (248,639)
Canada (121,648)
Zoology (95)
ZOO 2700 (24)
Midterm

ZOO 2700 Notes (After The Midterm) Winter 2013

22 Pages
266 Views

Department
Zoology
Course Code
ZOO 2700
Professor
Douglas Fudge

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 22 pages of the document.
Description
th February 25 Bryozoa and Chaetognatha Loppotrochozoa  Bryozoa  500 species  AKA mass animals – look like plants  Cell structure has lots of minerals  Apomorphies o Introvert  Feeding structure with tentacles/cilia  Stalk-like neck that supports it (can be retracted)  Stored in coelom o Funicular system (like a conveyor belt)  Connects from digestive system of one to another  Can’t live alone - colony o Colonial o Multi-ciliated cells (move food, create current) cilia o Coelomopores – pore allows for gamete to be expelled  Body plans: o Stolonate: Individuals are attached end to end – posterior connections forming a line o Fruticose: Individuals are attached side to side forming a bush o Encrusting: most common, individuals are attached to substrate on one side than attached side by side to eachother o Foliaceous: Sheets, individuals are attached with ventral sides exposed and dorsal stuck together  Autozooids – eat and gather food  Heterozooids o Kenozooids o Avicularia – defensive o Vibracula – leg-like (can be used as legs) o Ovicell – reproductive  Fast retraction of lopophores (retractal muscles) Chaetognatha (arrow worms) - Hermaphrodites - 150 species - Small, transparent, super predators (plankton etc.) - Apomorphies o Grasping spines (chitin) on anterior end which can be contained  Venomous o Hood o Ciliary Fences o Double-walled lateral fins  From epidermis o Stratified epidermis (ONLY INVERTRBRATE WITH THIS)  Only in trunk - Perfect bilateral symmetry th February 27 Clade:  a group consisting of an ancestor and all of its descendants; a branch in the tree of life  Can be node based, stem based, or apomorphy based (best) Annelida: (4 classes: Polychaeta, Clitella, Sipuncula, ….)  Apomorphies o Four bundles of simple chaeta per segment o Chaetae is made of beta chitin  Microvilli attach to chaetae and build it as beta chitin attaches (tube with holes) o Metamerism  A plan of structure in which the body is differentiated along its longitudinal axis into a series of units or segments each containing elements of the chief systems of organs  Forms from mesoderm  Confined to ectoderm and mesoderm – NOT endoderm  Different from Segmentation  Segmentation is from the ectoderm and is confined to the ectoderm  Metamere features:  A pair of mesodermal somites with coelomic spaces  Pair of nephridia  Pair of coelomoducts  Pair of ganglia on a ventral nerve cord  Pair of appendages  Metamerism is not perfectly segmented  There is no perfect example because there is no organism with all identical metemeres  Different from chordate or cestode metamerism  Advantages:  Can build large organ systems  Effective servicing of major systems  Flexible/complex movement  Loss of parts is not fatal  Opportunities for specialization  Disadvantages:  Requires lots of energy  Every organ must be replicated (new adaptations are limited or require the reduction in metamerism) o Movement: a series of contractions and elongations o Serial Homology:  Specialization of appendages and other structures for different functions  Different function, same segmentation, embryonic, and evolutionary origin o Tagmatism:  Tagmata  Structurally differentiated groups of segments  Specific functions  By: Restriction and Divergence or Fusion o Prostomium – everything in front of the mouth o Peristomium: around the mouth, behind the prostomium o Pygidium – anus, etc. o Body wall:  Fibrous cuticle  Collagen fibres in a cross-helical arrangement o Used for:  Vermicomposting (worms)  Soil turners  Mixers (Compost)  Pathogen controllers (render them useless)  Accelerators  Screeners  Aerators (add oxygen) st March 1 : Polychaeta:  8000 species  Apomorphies: o Parapodia (locomotion) little arm things  Rod attached to muscles  Chaetal bundles o Pedal ganglia o Nuchal organs – chemal receptors – prey receptors o Pair of pygidial cirri – fat sensory organs  Burrowers (make a U-shaped burrow)  Crawlers  Swimmers(super predators)  Musculature: o Circular (outside of long) o Longitudinal o Acicular/parapodia (special)  Many sedimentary polychaeta secrete tubes  Build off a variety of materials  Nervous system: o Anterior dorsal “brain” o Ventral pair of nerve cords o Parapodial ganglia o Eyes (lens etc.) o Nuchal organs rd  Nutrition: (Beginning of March 4 Notes) o Deposit feeders  Direct vs. indirect o Predators o Suspension feeders (tube worm)  Circulation: o Dorsal-ventral vessels o Muscular pumps – peristalsis o Respiratory pigments – haemoglobin o Coelomic or hemal circulation  Excretion:(EXAM: Compare and Contrast pg. 212-213 in text) o Protonephridia = coelomic system – flame cell (simple) o Metanephridia = hemal system – complex  No flame cells  Super filters – caused by blood pressure  Force waste in to coelom  Ultrafiltration of blood  Selective reabsorption  Reproduction: o Gonochoric o Gametes stored in coelom o External fertilization o Trochophore larvae  Epitoky: o Pelagic individual from a benthic one o Coincides with sexual maturity o Swimming and swarming o Whole animal or budding  Diverse: o Beard worms o 80+ deep water species o Chitin-protein tubes o Up to 3m long o No mouth or anus  Chemosynthetic bacteria Clitellata: (Class)  Apomorphies: o Clitellum o Lack parapodia  Oligochaeta (subclass): o Apomorphies:  Muscular bulbs in dorsal wall of pharynx o Body wall and muscles  Similar to polychaetes  Circular musculature  Longitudinal musculature  Chaetal protractors and retractors  Septal sphincters o Nervous System:  Brain more posterior (3 )  Single ventral nerve cord  Giant axons  Photoreceptors – make up for lack of eyes  Chemoreceptors – lots located on head o Digestive System:  Muscular pharynx – begins digestion  Esophagus  Gizzard – breaks down food  Crop – holds food  Intestine  Typhlosole – increases surface area (U-shaped)  Chlorogogen tissue – unknown function, wrapped around intestines o Circulation and Gas Exchange  Similar vasculature to polychaetes  Haemoglobin in blood  Transport  Gas exchange through body wall  Many tolerate hypoxia o Excretion:  Metanephridia – crosses two barriers  In each segment  Elaborate tubules in some  Terrestrial earthworms are ureotelic o Reproduction:  Asexual:  Architomy (division first)  Paratomy (develops separate and then separates)  Sexual:  Simultaneous hermaphrodites  Copulation – exchange of sperm  Egg case secreted by clittelum  Egg sperm injected into egg o Movement:  First contract circular muscles and relax longitudinal muscles  Second relax circulation and contract longitudinal th  Hirudinomorpha: (subclass) (Beginning of March 6 notes) o Apomorphies  Posterior sucker  Dorsal anus anterior to sucker  Superficial annulations (33)  Unpaired midventral gonopore  Ectoparasidic – external parasite o Body wall and structure  4 major muscle groups (circular, longitudinal, dorsoventral, diagonal)  Posterior sucker o Locomotion:  Crawling  Swimming (flat is good – dorsoventral muscle) o Nerves and Senses:  Brain in segment 5  Ventral nerve cord  Segmented ganglia  Chromatophores  Pigment cup ocelli (sense light)  Sensory papillae (disc-like mechanoreceptors) o Digestion:  Similar to flatworm  Anterior sucker/jaw  Lateral ceca  Symbiotic bacteria (breaks down blood etc.) o Usefulness:  Post-surgery  Hirudin – anaesthetic, secretes it o Excretion:  Coelomic pressure (not circulatory)  Nephrostome  Immune system (not making primary urine) o Reproduction:  Hermaphrodites – no asexual  Internal fertilization  Clitellum  Echiura (class) o Spoonworms o 150 species o Burrowers o Apomorphies:  Prostomia – floppy part that isn’t burrowed  Pair of anterior ventral chaetae (dig)  2 posterior rings of chaetae  Maintain burrow  Prostomial and trunk coeloms  Intestinal siphon (prominent and reduced) o U shaped burrows/crevices – other thing live there too o Deposit or filter feeders o Prostium and trunk o Hooked chaetae o 3 muscular layers (dorsoventral, circular, longitudinal)  Not along whole body o On the inside:  Prostomial ring, ventral nerve cord  Long coiled gut and siphon  Simple hemal system o Reproduction:  External fertilization  Trochopore larvae  Tiny male (max. 3mm in some)  Sipuncula: (class) o Peanut worms o 150 species o Apomorphies:  Eversible introvert  Introvert retractor muscles  Tentacles  Tentacular coelom  J-shaped digestive tract  Intestinal ciliary groove (similar to siphon – diverts water)  Cuticle with scattered hooks  Hemerythrin in cells o Marine o Blind burrows/crevices o Suspension/deposit feeding o Tentacles th March 11 : Mollusca – snails, squid, octopus, mussels  100,000 species!  Apomorphies: o Dorsal mantle with secreted chitin cuticle and calcareous spicules  Sometimes a shel o Radula – looks like tongue  Can be everted out o Foot and paired pedal retractor muscles o Bipectinate gills  Ancentral form  Lots of variation  Looks like feather, increases surface area o Tetraneural nervous system  Cerebral  Pleural  Pedal  Parietal  Visceral  Marine  Benthic  Head, visceral mass  Shell  Mantle: o Over VM o Secretes shell  Peristraccum  Osteostracum  Gills – gill filaments are counter current to oxygen in gills  Nephridiopores  Anus  Gonopores  Sensory osphradia  Inhalant/exhalent chambers  Lateral cilia  Frontal cilia  Abfrontal cilia  Foot: o Muscular o Ciliated creepsole o Mucus secretion o Pedal hemocoel o Retractor muscles  Radula: o Rasping organ o Odontophore o Chitinous teeth o Protractor muscles o Retractor muscles  Coelom and internal transport: o Pericardial cavity and gonocoel o Heart o Blood o Open hemal system o Dorsal aorta  Cephalic tentacles  Eyes  Statocysts  Osphradia  Reproduction: o Gonochoric (2 sexes) o Gonad near pericardial cavity o Gametes into coelom o Exit via nephridiophore o Internal fertilization in some  Development: o Trochopore larva or veliger larva – forms a cross o Direct development in some th March 15 : Alplacophora:  300 species  Apomorphies: o Cylindrical vermiform body (worm shape) o Foot reduced o Mantle with cuticle and spicules o Dorsoterminal sense organs  Derived from ostridium o Gonads open into pericardial coelom  Carnivores and deposit feeders  Marine  No shell  Spicules  Radula  Pedal groove – foot origin  Mantle cavity Eumollusca:  Apomorphies o Digestive ceca o Coiled gut – increase surface area, increase absorption o Complex radular musculature o Odontophore with chondroid supports Polyplacophora:  900 species  Aka chitins  Apomorphies: o 8 dorsal overlapping val
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit