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ZOO 2700 Notes (After The Midterm) Winter 2013

22 Pages

Course Code
ZOO 2700
Douglas Fudge

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th February 25 Bryozoa and Chaetognatha Loppotrochozoa  Bryozoa  500 species  AKA mass animals – look like plants  Cell structure has lots of minerals  Apomorphies o Introvert  Feeding structure with tentacles/cilia  Stalk-like neck that supports it (can be retracted)  Stored in coelom o Funicular system (like a conveyor belt)  Connects from digestive system of one to another  Can’t live alone - colony o Colonial o Multi-ciliated cells (move food, create current) cilia o Coelomopores – pore allows for gamete to be expelled  Body plans: o Stolonate: Individuals are attached end to end – posterior connections forming a line o Fruticose: Individuals are attached side to side forming a bush o Encrusting: most common, individuals are attached to substrate on one side than attached side by side to eachother o Foliaceous: Sheets, individuals are attached with ventral sides exposed and dorsal stuck together  Autozooids – eat and gather food  Heterozooids o Kenozooids o Avicularia – defensive o Vibracula – leg-like (can be used as legs) o Ovicell – reproductive  Fast retraction of lopophores (retractal muscles) Chaetognatha (arrow worms) - Hermaphrodites - 150 species - Small, transparent, super predators (plankton etc.) - Apomorphies o Grasping spines (chitin) on anterior end which can be contained  Venomous o Hood o Ciliary Fences o Double-walled lateral fins  From epidermis o Stratified epidermis (ONLY INVERTRBRATE WITH THIS)  Only in trunk - Perfect bilateral symmetry th February 27 Clade:  a group consisting of an ancestor and all of its descendants; a branch in the tree of life  Can be node based, stem based, or apomorphy based (best) Annelida: (4 classes: Polychaeta, Clitella, Sipuncula, ….)  Apomorphies o Four bundles of simple chaeta per segment o Chaetae is made of beta chitin  Microvilli attach to chaetae and build it as beta chitin attaches (tube with holes) o Metamerism  A plan of structure in which the body is differentiated along its longitudinal axis into a series of units or segments each containing elements of the chief systems of organs  Forms from mesoderm  Confined to ectoderm and mesoderm – NOT endoderm  Different from Segmentation  Segmentation is from the ectoderm and is confined to the ectoderm  Metamere features:  A pair of mesodermal somites with coelomic spaces  Pair of nephridia  Pair of coelomoducts  Pair of ganglia on a ventral nerve cord  Pair of appendages  Metamerism is not perfectly segmented  There is no perfect example because there is no organism with all identical metemeres  Different from chordate or cestode metamerism  Advantages:  Can build large organ systems  Effective servicing of major systems  Flexible/complex movement  Loss of parts is not fatal  Opportunities for specialization  Disadvantages:  Requires lots of energy  Every organ must be replicated (new adaptations are limited or require the reduction in metamerism) o Movement: a series of contractions and elongations o Serial Homology:  Specialization of appendages and other structures for different functions  Different function, same segmentation, embryonic, and evolutionary origin o Tagmatism:  Tagmata  Structurally differentiated groups of segments  Specific functions  By: Restriction and Divergence or Fusion o Prostomium – everything in front of the mouth o Peristomium: around the mouth, behind the prostomium o Pygidium – anus, etc. o Body wall:  Fibrous cuticle  Collagen fibres in a cross-helical arrangement o Used for:  Vermicomposting (worms)  Soil turners  Mixers (Compost)  Pathogen controllers (render them useless)  Accelerators  Screeners  Aerators (add oxygen) st March 1 : Polychaeta:  8000 species  Apomorphies: o Parapodia (locomotion) little arm things  Rod attached to muscles  Chaetal bundles o Pedal ganglia o Nuchal organs – chemal receptors – prey receptors o Pair of pygidial cirri – fat sensory organs  Burrowers (make a U-shaped burrow)  Crawlers  Swimmers(super predators)  Musculature: o Circular (outside of long) o Longitudinal o Acicular/parapodia (special)  Many sedimentary polychaeta secrete tubes  Build off a variety of materials  Nervous system: o Anterior dorsal “brain” o Ventral pair of nerve cords o Parapodial ganglia o Eyes (lens etc.) o Nuchal organs rd  Nutrition: (Beginning of March 4 Notes) o Deposit feeders  Direct vs. indirect o Predators o Suspension feeders (tube worm)  Circulation: o Dorsal-ventral vessels o Muscular pumps – peristalsis o Respiratory pigments – haemoglobin o Coelomic or hemal circulation  Excretion:(EXAM: Compare and Contrast pg. 212-213 in text) o Protonephridia = coelomic system – flame cell (simple) o Metanephridia = hemal system – complex  No flame cells  Super filters – caused by blood pressure  Force waste in to coelom  Ultrafiltration of blood  Selective reabsorption  Reproduction: o Gonochoric o Gametes stored in coelom o External fertilization o Trochophore larvae  Epitoky: o Pelagic individual from a benthic one o Coincides with sexual maturity o Swimming and swarming o Whole animal or budding  Diverse: o Beard worms o 80+ deep water species o Chitin-protein tubes o Up to 3m long o No mouth or anus  Chemosynthetic bacteria Clitellata: (Class)  Apomorphies: o Clitellum o Lack parapodia  Oligochaeta (subclass): o Apomorphies:  Muscular bulbs in dorsal wall of pharynx o Body wall and muscles  Similar to polychaetes  Circular musculature  Longitudinal musculature  Chaetal protractors and retractors  Septal sphincters o Nervous System:  Brain more posterior (3 )  Single ventral nerve cord  Giant axons  Photoreceptors – make up for lack of eyes  Chemoreceptors – lots located on head o Digestive System:  Muscular pharynx – begins digestion  Esophagus  Gizzard – breaks down food  Crop – holds food  Intestine  Typhlosole – increases surface area (U-shaped)  Chlorogogen tissue – unknown function, wrapped around intestines o Circulation and Gas Exchange  Similar vasculature to polychaetes  Haemoglobin in blood  Transport  Gas exchange through body wall  Many tolerate hypoxia o Excretion:  Metanephridia – crosses two barriers  In each segment  Elaborate tubules in some  Terrestrial earthworms are ureotelic o Reproduction:  Asexual:  Architomy (division first)  Paratomy (develops separate and then separates)  Sexual:  Simultaneous hermaphrodites  Copulation – exchange of sperm  Egg case secreted by clittelum  Egg sperm injected into egg o Movement:  First contract circular muscles and relax longitudinal muscles  Second relax circulation and contract longitudinal th  Hirudinomorpha: (subclass) (Beginning of March 6 notes) o Apomorphies  Posterior sucker  Dorsal anus anterior to sucker  Superficial annulations (33)  Unpaired midventral gonopore  Ectoparasidic – external parasite o Body wall and structure  4 major muscle groups (circular, longitudinal, dorsoventral, diagonal)  Posterior sucker o Locomotion:  Crawling  Swimming (flat is good – dorsoventral muscle) o Nerves and Senses:  Brain in segment 5  Ventral nerve cord  Segmented ganglia  Chromatophores  Pigment cup ocelli (sense light)  Sensory papillae (disc-like mechanoreceptors) o Digestion:  Similar to flatworm  Anterior sucker/jaw  Lateral ceca  Symbiotic bacteria (breaks down blood etc.) o Usefulness:  Post-surgery  Hirudin – anaesthetic, secretes it o Excretion:  Coelomic pressure (not circulatory)  Nephrostome  Immune system (not making primary urine) o Reproduction:  Hermaphrodites – no asexual  Internal fertilization  Clitellum  Echiura (class) o Spoonworms o 150 species o Burrowers o Apomorphies:  Prostomia – floppy part that isn’t burrowed  Pair of anterior ventral chaetae (dig)  2 posterior rings of chaetae  Maintain burrow  Prostomial and trunk coeloms  Intestinal siphon (prominent and reduced) o U shaped burrows/crevices – other thing live there too o Deposit or filter feeders o Prostium and trunk o Hooked chaetae o 3 muscular layers (dorsoventral, circular, longitudinal)  Not along whole body o On the inside:  Prostomial ring, ventral nerve cord  Long coiled gut and siphon  Simple hemal system o Reproduction:  External fertilization  Trochopore larvae  Tiny male (max. 3mm in some)  Sipuncula: (class) o Peanut worms o 150 species o Apomorphies:  Eversible introvert  Introvert retractor muscles  Tentacles  Tentacular coelom  J-shaped digestive tract  Intestinal ciliary groove (similar to siphon – diverts water)  Cuticle with scattered hooks  Hemerythrin in cells o Marine o Blind burrows/crevices o Suspension/deposit feeding o Tentacles th March 11 : Mollusca – snails, squid, octopus, mussels  100,000 species!  Apomorphies: o Dorsal mantle with secreted chitin cuticle and calcareous spicules  Sometimes a shel o Radula – looks like tongue  Can be everted out o Foot and paired pedal retractor muscles o Bipectinate gills  Ancentral form  Lots of variation  Looks like feather, increases surface area o Tetraneural nervous system  Cerebral  Pleural  Pedal  Parietal  Visceral  Marine  Benthic  Head, visceral mass  Shell  Mantle: o Over VM o Secretes shell  Peristraccum  Osteostracum  Gills – gill filaments are counter current to oxygen in gills  Nephridiopores  Anus  Gonopores  Sensory osphradia  Inhalant/exhalent chambers  Lateral cilia  Frontal cilia  Abfrontal cilia  Foot: o Muscular o Ciliated creepsole o Mucus secretion o Pedal hemocoel o Retractor muscles  Radula: o Rasping organ o Odontophore o Chitinous teeth o Protractor muscles o Retractor muscles  Coelom and internal transport: o Pericardial cavity and gonocoel o Heart o Blood o Open hemal system o Dorsal aorta  Cephalic tentacles  Eyes  Statocysts  Osphradia  Reproduction: o Gonochoric (2 sexes) o Gonad near pericardial cavity o Gametes into coelom o Exit via nephridiophore o Internal fertilization in some  Development: o Trochopore larva or veliger larva – forms a cross o Direct development in some th March 15 : Alplacophora:  300 species  Apomorphies: o Cylindrical vermiform body (worm shape) o Foot reduced o Mantle with cuticle and spicules o Dorsoterminal sense organs  Derived from ostridium o Gonads open into pericardial coelom  Carnivores and deposit feeders  Marine  No shell  Spicules  Radula  Pedal groove – foot origin  Mantle cavity Eumollusca:  Apomorphies o Digestive ceca o Coiled gut – increase surface area, increase absorption o Complex radular musculature o Odontophore with chondroid supports Polyplacophora:  900 species  Aka chitins  Apomorphies: o 8 dorsal overlapping val
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