Cell Theory: The principle stating that all organisms of one or more cells,
which are the smallest living things and that all cells come from preexisting
Cell is the smallest unit of life. (Some organisms are single celled)
Tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a function.
Organs are several tissues joined together.
An organ system is various organs that work together.
Complex organisms are a collection of organ systems.
Genes allow cells and organisms to reproduce. DNA contains the hereditary
information that directs cell structure of the cell and its metabolism.
Biodiversity encompasses the total number of species, the variability of their
genes and the ecosystems they live in.
Domain Archea: Capable of living in extreme locations. Aquatic environments
that lack oxygen or are too salty, too hot or too acidic for most other
organisms. (Unicellular Prokaryotes.)
Domain Bacteria: Found almost everywhere. Found in water, air, soil,
atmosphere along with our skin and digestive tracts. (Unicellular Prokaryotes.)
Domain Eukarya: 1. Protista: Complex single cellular and sometimes multicellular. Absorb,
photosynthesize or ingest food. (Protozoan, algae, water molds, slime
2. Fungi: Some unicellular, most multicellular filamentous forms with
specialized complex cells. Absorb food. (Molds, yeasts and mushrooms.)
3. Plantae: Multicellular form with specialized cells. Photosynthesize foods.
(Mosses, ferns, non-woody and woody flowering plants.)
4. Anamalia: Multicellular form with specialized complex cells. Ingest food.
(Invertebrates, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals.)
Plasma Membrane: Semi permeable membrane that consists of phospholipid
bilayer in which some protein molecules are imbedded. Regulates the
entrance and exit of molecules into and out of the cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm: Jelly like fluid (semi fluid medium) inside the cell that holds the
cell’s organelles within the cell in place.
Cell Wall: Located outside of the plasma membrane, contains peptidoglycan, a
complex molecule that is unique to bacteria and composed of chains of
disaccharides joined by peptide chains. Protects the bacteria.
Capsule/Slime Layer: Surrounds the cell wall.
Flagella: Rotating filament, which pushes the cell forward.
Fimbrae: Hair like bristles that allow adhesion to surfaces.
Nucleoid: A single chromosome located within a region of cytoplasm. It is not
bound by any sort of membrane.
Plasmid: Small accessory rings of DNA.
Ribsomes: Used in the synthesis of proteins.
Thykaloids: Photosynthetic cyanobacteria have light-sensitive pigments usually
within the membranes, which resemble flattened disks. Eukaryotic Cells
Cell Walls: Permeable but protective cell wall, in addition to a plasma
membrane. Plant cells often have a primary and secondary cell wall. Cellulose
molecules make up the cell wall. Secondary cell wall, which forms within the
first cell wall, consists of lignin. Often cell walls could consist of chitin.
Nucleus: Prominent structure. Stores genetic material such as DNA, which
governs the characteristics and metabolic information for the cell.
Chromatin: DNA and associated proteins. Appears grainy material but is
threadlike in structure and undergoes coiling to form chromosomes.
Chromatin is immersed in a semi fluid medium known as the
Nucleolus: RNA is stored here, called rRNA (ribosomal RNA.
Nuclear Envelope: A membrane surrounding the nucleus that separates the
nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Nuclear Pores: Small pores that allow proteins to pass through into the
nucleus and allows the ribosomal units to pass out.
Ribosomes: Composed of two types of units, small and large. rRNA and
protein molecules which comprise ribosomes can be found individually in
ribosome form in the cytoplasm. They can also be found in groups called
polyribosomes. Ribosomes are often found attached to endoplasmic
reticulum. Proteins synthesized and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
have different destinations than those floating freely in the cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Complicated system of membranous channels and
saccules. Continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.
Rough ER is studded with ribosomes on the side of the membrane that faces
the cytoplasm. Proteins are synthesized here and enter the ER interior where
modification and processing begin, without the protein in the proper place
the cell is unable to regulate itself resulting in various symptoms of diseases.
Smooth ER is continuous off the rough ER does not have ribosomes. Smooth
ER synthesizes the phospholipids that occur in membranes and performs various other functions depending on the particular cell. ER also forms
vesicles which products are transported to the Golgi Apparatus.
Golgi Apparatus: Named for Camillo Golgi who discovered it in 1898. The
Golgi consists of 3 – 20 stacked slightly curved saccules. This organelle is used
for the collecting, sorting and distributing proteins and lipids within the cell.
The Golgi receives proteins and lipid filled vesicles from the ER and then
passes through the Golgi Apparatus and the proteins and lipids are modified
before they are repackaged into vesicles. Repackaging occurs in the form of
secretory vesicles, which travel to the plasma membrane where they discharge
Lysosomes: Membrane bound vesicles produced by the Golgi Apparatus, they
contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes.
Vacuole: A large membranous sac. Larger than a vesicles, very prominent in
plant cells which stores substances. Often they contain pigments, which is
responsible for the coloring of the plant, or they contents could be toxic
substances which help protect the plant from herbivorous animals.
Peroxisomes: Are similar to Lysosomes in regards to being a membrane-
bounded vesicle with enclosed enzymes. However, the enzymes in
peroxisomes are synthesized by the cytoplasmic ribsomes and transported to
the peroxisome by carrier proteins. Peroxisomes enzyme actions often result
in hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen Peroxide is immediately broken down to
water and oxygen peroxisomal enzyme called catalase. However, the enzyme
present in the peroxisome depends on the function of the cell.
Chloroplasts: Specialize in converting energy to a form the (plant) cell can use.
Bounded by two membranes that enclose a fluid filled place known as the
stroma. The membrane inside the stroma is organized into interconnected
flattened sacs called thykaloids. The thykaloids are stacked up in structures
called grana, often there are hundreds of grana inside of the cell. Chloroplasts
are used to synthesize carbohydrates, which are then broken down in the
mitochondria. Mitochondria: Bounded by a double membrane. The inner fluid filled area is
called the matrix, it contains DNA, ribosomes and enzymes that break down
carbohydrate products releasing energy to be used for ATP production. The
inner membrane opens to form cristae which increases surface area to
accommodate the protein complexes and other participants that produce ATP.
Cytoskeleton: The protein components of the cytoskeleton are interconnected
and extend from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. The cytoskeleton
contains actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules which
maintain the shape of the cell and allows the organelles and the cell to move.
Actin Filament: long extremely thin yet flexible fibers that occur in
bundles or meshlike networks. Play a structural role when they form a
dense complex web just under the plasma membrane; they are
anchored here by special proteins. They are also seen as Microvilli that
project from intestinal cells.
Intermediate Filaments: Intermediate in size between actin filaments
and microtubules, they perform a structural role in the cell. They are a
ropelike assembly of fibrous polypeptides. Intermediate filaments
support the nuclear envelope while others support the plasma
Microtubules: Small hollow cylinders, made up of the globular protein
tubulin. They have 13 rows of tubulin dimmers, surrounding what
appears to be an empty core. The microtubule-organizing centre is in
the centrosome of most cells, which lies near the nucleus. They radiate
from the centrosome helping maintain the shape of the cell and acting
as tracks along which organelles can move. Before the cell divides
microtubules disassemble and reassemble into the structure called the
spindle that distributes the chromosomes in an orderly manner, at the
end of cell division the spindle disassembles and the reassembles into
Centrioles: Short cylinders with a 9+0 patter in microtubule triplets. (A
ring has nine sets of triplets with none in the middle) In animal cells centrosomes contain 2 centrioles lying at right angles to one another.
The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing centre for the cell.
During division centrosomes function to organize and function to
organize the meiotic spindle. Plant cells have the equivalent of a
centrosome but it does not contain centrioles since they are not
necessary to the assembly of cytoplasmic microtubules.
Cilia/Flagella: Hair like projections that can move either in an
undulating fashion like a whip or stiffly like an oar. Cells, which have
these organelles, are capable of movement. Both cilia and flagella are
membrane bound cylinders enclosing a matrix area. In the matrix there
are 9 microtubules surrounding 2 central microtubules. Cilia and
Flagella move when the microtubule doublets slide past one another. Labs
Workplace Hazardous Material Information System (WHMIS)
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
1. What are the chemical constitutions of the plasma membrane and how
are they arranged?
The chemical composition of the Plasma membrane is:
It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic/polar heads of the of
the phospholipids facing outward and the hydrophobic/nonpolar tails facing inward.
There is an array of amphipathic proteins used in cell to cell recognition,transport via
passive or active transport, etc.There are glycoproteins mainly facing the extracelluar
matrix and some cholestrol molecules to maintain the membranes fluidity.
2. Give three functions of the plasma membran