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[BIOL 2500] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 100 pages long St..
[BIOL 2500] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 100 pages long Study Guide!

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2500
Roman Gietz

[BIOL 2500] Comprehensive Final Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Mitosis and Meiosis Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction  Two ways to reproduce in the universe  Asexual o Same cloning  Uses mitosis o Many plants use this method  Strawberries, many trees - many microbes use this method as well  Sexual reproduction o Production of haploid gametes (n) using a specialize processes  Uses meiosis o Fusion of 2 haploid gametes to give a diploid individual (2n) o Why?  Variation is important in the survival of a species  Only those that have some sort of variation in their genome have some level of protection against extinction  Extinction is due to changing conditions in the environment  New microbe that attacks a specific genotype  Bubonic plague or cholera  A change the environment that affects growth conditions  Variation in the genome protects against loss of an entire species Cell Division  Cell division is to produce a multicellular organism  Mitosis - produces two identical daughter cells that are exact genetic replicas of the parental cell o 2 daughter cells from 1 parent cell  Most body cells are somatic cells (non-reproductive) usually with chromosomes present in pairs which is the diploid number (2n) of chromosomes Reproductive Cells - Special Cell Division  Gametes are produced from germ-line, or reproductive, cells  Meiosis produces haploid gametes (n) that have half the number of chromosomes as the original diploid cell (2n)  The gametes are not genetically identical to one another  This gives rise to the variation in the progeny o Needed for species to survive Genes are Carried on Chromosomes  Discovery of genes on the X chromosome supported the chromosome theory of heredity There are two cellular processes that deal with making sure the chromosomes are handled  appropriately  Mitosis - production of identical diploid cells  Meiosis - production of haploid gametes cells Mitosis Divides Somatic Cells find more resources at
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