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CHEM 0900 Study Guide - Oxoacid, Formula Unit, Molecular Mass

by
10 pages47 viewsWinter 2013

Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 0900
Professor
Online

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Levels of Chemistry
Macroscale Level: Human Level, Observations
Symbolic Level: Representation Level, Symbols, Formuls, Equations
Nanoscale Level: Particle Level, Models
Physical Properties of Matter
Matter: anything that is occupying space or has a mass.
Solid: rigid, fixed volume and shape.
Liquid: definite volume but assumes the shape of container.
Gas: no fixed volume or shape, assumes the shape of its container.
Liquid and Gas are fluid**
Physical Properties
1. Temperature
2. Pressure
3. Mass
4. Volume
5. State
6. Melting point
7. Boiling point
8. Density
9. Color
10. Shape of solid crystals
11. Hardness
12. Brittleness
13. Heat capacity
**Dependence of the properties on the amount of the sample.
Extensive properties: depends on amount of sample.
Intensive properties: independent of the amount of the sample.
Extensive:
1. Volume
2. Mass
3. Pressure
4. Heat capacity
Intensive:
1. Temperature
2. State
3. Melting point
4. Boiling point
5. Hardness
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6. Density
7. Brittleness
8. Color
Percent Composition of Mixtures
Mixtures have variable composition
Homogeneous mixture: looks completely uniform and consists of two or more
substances in the same phase. (Solutions)
Heterogeneous mixture: is clearly not uniform when seen without magnification.
%A= (amount of A/total amounts of A and B)x100%
Atoms, Molecules, Elements and Compounds
Compound: a pure substance with a constant composition that can be broken down
into elements by chemical processes.
Element: a pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by
chemical means.
Democritus(400 B.C.)
Introduced the concept f the smallest possible particle of matter.
Atoms >> atomos: cannot be divided.
Matter
Mixtures
Heterogeneous Homogeneous
Pure
Substances
Compounds Elements
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory
1. Each element is formed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements differ in
some fundamental ways.
3. Chemical compounds form when atoms combine with one another. A given
compound always has the same relative number and types of atoms.
4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms. Atoms change the
way they are bound together. During the process, atoms are NOT created or
destroyed.
Atom: the smallest particle of an element that can exist. They differ as a function of
their mass and other properties.
Element: a substance composed of only one kind of atom.
Elements can exist as single atoms or molecules.
Molecules are a definite and distinct group of atoms bound together.
Allotropes: different forms of the same element that exist in the same physical state
at the same temperature and pressure. (Ex. O2, O3. Oxygen and Ozone.)
Compound: a substance that consists of two or more different elements with their
atoms in a definite, characteristic ratio. (Ex. H2O, CO2, CO. Water, Carbon Dioxide,
Carbon Monoxide.)
Language of Chemistry: Intro to Nomenclature
Types of Elements:
1. Non-metals: do not conduct electricity, are not malleable or ductile.
2. Semi-Metals: show mixtures of metallic and non metallic properties.
3. Metals: conduct electricity, have metallic luster and are malleable and ductile.
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Silicon
Phosphorus
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