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Chemistry 0900 Module Notes.docx

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CHEM 0900

Levels of Chemistry Macroscale Level: Human Level, Observations Symbolic Level: Representation Level, Symbols, Formuls, Equations Nanoscale Level: Particle Level, Models Physical Properties of Matter Matter: anything that is occupying space or has a mass. Solid: rigid, fixed volume and shape. Liquid: definite volume but assumes the shape of container. Gas: no fixed volume or shape, assumes the shape of its container. Liquid and Gas are fluid** Physical Properties 1. Temperature 2. Pressure 3. Mass 4. Volume 5. State 6. Melting point 7. Boiling point 8. Density 9. Color 10.Shape of solid crystals 11.Hardness 12.Brittleness 13.Heat capacity **Dependence of the properties on the amount of the sample. Extensive properties: depends on amount of sample. Intensive properties: independent of the amount of the sample. Extensive: 1. Volume 2. Mass 3. Pressure 4. Heat capacity Intensive: 1. Temperature 2. State 3. Melting point 4. Boiling point 5. Hardness 6. Density 7. Brittleness 8. Color Percent Composition of Mixtures Mixtures have variable composition Homogeneous mixture: looks completely uniform and consists of two or more substances in the same phase. (Solutions) Heterogeneous mixture: is clearly not uniform when seen without magnification. %A= (amount of A/total amounts of A and B)x100% Atoms, Molecules, Elements and Compounds Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Homogeneous Compounds Elements Compound: a pure substance with a constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes. Element: a pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means. Democritus(400 B.C.)  Introduced the concept f the smallest possible particle of matter.  Atoms >> atomos: cannot be divided. Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1. Each element is formed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements differ in some fundamental ways. 3. Chemical compounds form when atoms combine with one another. A given compound always has the same relative number and types of atoms. 4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms. Atoms change the way they are bound together. During the process, atoms are NOT created or destroyed. Atom: the smallest particle of an element that can exist. They differ as a function of their mass and other properties. Element: a substance composed of only one kind of atom. Elements can exist as single atoms or molecules. Molecules are a definite and distinct group of atoms bound together. Allotropes: different forms of the same element that exist in the same physical state at the same temperature and pressure. (Ex. O2, O3. Oxygen and Ozone.) Compound: a substance that consists of two or more different elements with their atoms in a definite, characteristic ratio. (Ex. H2O, CO2, CO. Water, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide.) Language of Chemistry: Intro to Nomenclature Types of Elements: 1. Non-metals: do not conduct electricity, are not malleable or ductile. 2. Semi-Metals: show mixtures of metallic and non metallic properties. 3. Metals: conduct electricity, have metallic luster and are malleable and ductile. Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Strontium Silver Tin Iodine Barium Platinum Gold Mercury Lead Uranium Language of Chemistry: The Periodic Table Rutherford’s Model of Atom  Atom is composed of mainly vacant space.  All the positive charge and most of the mass is in the nucleus.  Neutrons are also present in the nucleus.  Electrons are dispersed as layers around the nucleus. The atomic number (Z): number of protons (equal to electrons in a neutral atom.) Atomic Mass (A): sum of number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. (A = Z + N) Group 1: Alkali Metals Group 2: Alkali Earth Metals Group 17: Halogens Group 18: Noble Gases Group 3-12: Transition Metals Lanthanides (rare earth metals) Actinides (trans-uranium series) Valence Shell Electrons  Electrons are present in layer around the nucleus.  Electrons in the outermost shell are called valence shell electrons.  These electrons are very important as they interact with other valence shell electrons of other atoms and bonding.  For main group elements the number of valence electrons corresponds to their position in their periodic table. Language of Chemistry: Oxidation States For an atom, electrons can be lost or gained during chemical reactions. Lost electrons:  Oxidation  The state becomes more positive. Gains electrons:  Reduction  The state becomes more negative. Oxidation number is the number of electrons or gained during a chemical change. Rules for Oxidation State: 1. Of an atom in a pure element = 0 2. Monotomic ion = charge 3. Oxygen = -2 4. H with non-metal = 1 5. H with metal = -1 6. Fluorine in compounds = -1 7. Sum of O.S. is 0 in compounds 8. Sum of O.S equals charge of ions Elements with Fixed Oxidation State 1. Group 1: Always +1 2. Group 2: Always +2 3. Fluorine in fluorides: Always -1 4. Oxygen in oxides: Always -2 5. Aluminum & Scandium: Always +3 6. Zinc and Cadmium: Always +2 7. Silver: Always +1 Language of Chemistry: Lewis Symbols and Lewis Structures Lewis Symbol: chemical symbol of an element surrounded by dots representing its valence electrons. For ionic compounds, dots are removed from the Lewis symbol of the metal atom and transferred to the Lewis symbol of the nonmetal atom to complete its valence shell upon balancing the charges. Lewis structures: show how valence electrons are arranged among atoms in a molecule. Simplified Octet Rule: when compounds form, certain atoms gain or lose electrons until their respective valence shells possess eight electrons.  In covalent bonds atoms share pairs of electrons until they reach a noble gas
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