Study Guides (258,500)
CA (124,949)
UofM (362)
CHEM (29)
CHEM 0900 (1)
Online (1)

Chemistry 0900 Module Notes.docx

10 Pages
177 Views

Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 0900
Professor
Online

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Levels of Chemistry
Macroscale Level: Human Level, Observations
Symbolic Level: Representation Level, Symbols, Formuls, Equations
Nanoscale Level: Particle Level, Models
Physical Properties of Matter
Matter: anything that is occupying space or has a mass.
Solid: rigid, fixed volume and shape.
Liquid: definite volume but assumes the shape of container.
Gas: no fixed volume or shape, assumes the shape of its container.
Liquid and Gas are fluid**
Physical Properties
1. Temperature
2. Pressure
3. Mass
4. Volume
5. State
6. Melting point
7. Boiling point
8. Density
9. Color
10. Shape of solid crystals
11. Hardness
12. Brittleness
13. Heat capacity
**Dependence of the properties on the amount of the sample.
Extensive properties: depends on amount of sample.
Intensive properties: independent of the amount of the sample.
Extensive:
1. Volume
2. Mass
3. Pressure
4. Heat capacity
Intensive:
1. Temperature
2. State
3. Melting point
4. Boiling point
5. Hardness
6. Density
7. Brittleness
8. Color
Percent Composition of Mixtures
Mixtures have variable composition
Homogeneous mixture: looks completely uniform and consists of two or more
substances in the same phase. (Solutions)
Heterogeneous mixture: is clearly not uniform when seen without magnification.
%A= (amount of A/total amounts of A and B)x100%
Atoms, Molecules, Elements and Compounds
Compound: a pure substance with a constant composition that can be broken down
into elements by chemical processes.
Element: a pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by
chemical means.
Democritus(400 B.C.)
Introduced the concept f the smallest possible particle of matter.
Atoms >> atomos: cannot be divided.
Matter
Mixtures
Heterogeneous Homogeneous
Pure
Substances
Compounds Elements
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
1. Each element is formed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements differ in
some fundamental ways.
3. Chemical compounds form when atoms combine with one another. A given
compound always has the same relative number and types of atoms.
4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms. Atoms change the
way they are bound together. During the process, atoms are NOT created or
destroyed.
Atom: the smallest particle of an element that can exist. They differ as a function of
their mass and other properties.
Element: a substance composed of only one kind of atom.
Elements can exist as single atoms or molecules.
Molecules are a definite and distinct group of atoms bound together.
Allotropes: different forms of the same element that exist in the same physical state
at the same temperature and pressure. (Ex. O2, O3. Oxygen and Ozone.)
Compound: a substance that consists of two or more different elements with their
atoms in a definite, characteristic ratio. (Ex. H2O, CO2, CO. Water, Carbon Dioxide,
Carbon Monoxide.)
Language of Chemistry: Intro to Nomenclature
Types of Elements:
1. Non-metals: do not conduct electricity, are not malleable or ductile.
2. Semi-Metals: show mixtures of metallic and non metallic properties.
3. Metals: conduct electricity, have metallic luster and are malleable and ductile.
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Silicon
Phosphorus

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Levels of Chemistry Macroscale Level: Human Level, Observations Symbolic Level: Representation Level, Symbols, Formuls, Equations Nanoscale Level: Particle Level, Models Physical Properties of Matter Matter: anything that is occupying space or has a mass. Solid: rigid, fixed volume and shape. Liquid: definite volume but assumes the shape of container. Gas: no fixed volume or shape, assumes the shape of its container. Liquid and Gas are fluid** Physical Properties 1. Temperature 2. Pressure 3. Mass 4. Volume 5. State 6. Melting point 7. Boiling point 8. Density 9. Color 10.Shape of solid crystals 11.Hardness 12.Brittleness 13.Heat capacity **Dependence of the properties on the amount of the sample. Extensive properties: depends on amount of sample. Intensive properties: independent of the amount of the sample. Extensive: 1. Volume 2. Mass 3. Pressure 4. Heat capacity Intensive: 1. Temperature 2. State 3. Melting point 4. Boiling point 5. Hardness 6. Density 7. Brittleness 8. Color Percent Composition of Mixtures Mixtures have variable composition Homogeneous mixture: looks completely uniform and consists of two or more substances in the same phase. (Solutions) Heterogeneous mixture: is clearly not uniform when seen without magnification. %A= (amount of A/total amounts of A and B)x100% Atoms, Molecules, Elements and Compounds Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Homogeneous Compounds Elements Compound: a pure substance with a constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes. Element: a pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means. Democritus(400 B.C.)  Introduced the concept f the smallest possible particle of matter.  Atoms >> atomos: cannot be divided. Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1. Each element is formed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements differ in some fundamental ways. 3. Chemical compounds form when atoms combine with one another. A given compound always has the same relative number and types of atoms. 4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms. Atoms change the way they are bound together. During the process, atoms are NOT created or destroyed. Atom: the smallest particle of an element that can exist. They differ as a function of their mass and other properties. Element: a substance composed of only one kind of atom. Elements can exist as single atoms or molecules. Molecules are a definite and distinct group of atoms bound together. Allotropes: different forms of the same element that exist in the same physical state at the same temperature and pressure. (Ex. O2, O3. Oxygen and Ozone.) Compound: a substance that consists of two or more different elements with their atoms in a definite, characteristic ratio. (Ex. H2O, CO2, CO. Water, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide.) Language of Chemistry: Intro to Nomenclature Types of Elements: 1. Non-metals: do not conduct electricity, are not malleable or ductile. 2. Semi-Metals: show mixtures of metallic and non metallic properties. 3. Metals: conduct electricity, have metallic luster and are malleable and ductile. Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Strontium Silver Tin Iodine Barium Platinum Gold Mercury Lead Uranium Language of Chemistry: The Periodic Table Rutherford’s Model of Atom  Atom is composed of mainly vacant space.  All the positive charge and most of the mass is in the nucleus.  Neutrons are also present in the nucleus.  Electrons are dispersed as layers around the nucleus. The atomic number (Z): number of protons (equal to electrons in a neutral atom.) Atomic Mass (A): sum of number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. (A = Z + N) Group 1: Alkali Metals Group 2: Alkali Earth Metals Group 17: Halogens Group 18: Noble Gases Group 3-12: Transition Metals Lanthanides (rare earth metals) Actinides (trans-uranium series) Valence Shell Electrons  Electrons are present in layer around the nucleus.  Electrons in the outermost shell are called valence shell electrons.  These electrons are very important as they interact with other valence shell electrons of other atoms and bonding.  For main group elements the number of valence electrons corresponds to their position in their periodic table. Language of Chemistry: Oxidation States For an atom, electrons can be lost or gained during chemical reactions. Lost electrons:  Oxidation  The state becomes more positive. Gains electrons:  Reduction  The state becomes more negative. Oxidation number is the number of electrons or gained during a chemical change. Rules for Oxidation State: 1. Of an atom in a pure element = 0 2. Monotomic ion = charge 3. Oxygen = -2 4. H with non-metal = 1 5. H with metal = -1 6. Fluorine in compounds = -1 7. Sum of O.S. is 0 in compounds 8. Sum of O.S equals charge of ions Elements with Fixed Oxidation State 1. Group 1: Always +1 2. Group 2: Always +2 3. Fluorine in fluorides: Always -1 4. Oxygen in oxides: Always -2 5. Aluminum & Scandium: Always +3 6. Zinc and Cadmium: Always +2 7. Silver: Always +1 Language of Chemistry: Lewis Symbols and Lewis Structures Lewis Symbol: chemical symbol of an element surrounded by dots representing its valence electrons. For ionic compounds, dots are removed from the Lewis symbol of the metal atom and transferred to the Lewis symbol of the nonmetal atom to complete its valence shell upon balancing the charges. Lewis structures: show how valence electrons are arranged among atoms in a molecule. Simplified Octet Rule: when compounds form, certain atoms gain or lose electrons until their respective valence shells possess eight electrons.  In covalent bonds atoms share pairs of electrons until they reach a noble gas
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit