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CHEM 1300- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 93 pages long!)Premium


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1300
Professor
Elena Smirnova
Study Guide
Final

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UofM
CHEM 1300
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CHEM 1300-Lecture 1-Structure and modelling in Chemistry
What is Chemistry?
Study of elements
Chemicals
Interactions
Reactions
What is Energy?
Ability to do work
Work is the displacement of an object against an opposing force
Type of Energy
Kinetic energy - the energy of moving objects.
             
Potential Energy - the energy that is stored
Includes: gravitational, electric, chemical and mass energy
Electrical Energy : Opposites attracts . For example : (+)(-) attract, (+)(+) repel,
(-)(-) repel.
The attractive electrical force between opposite charges of electrons (-)
and nuclei protons (+) holds atoms together.
                         Eelectric =kr
Q Q
1 2
       and   = are the charges of two ions Q 1Q2
           r = distance between ions in pm
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Chemical Energy : Chemical energy or bond energy results when the electrons
and nuclei arrange to minimize the electrical potential energy.
Every compound (like salt) has stability that correlates with its chemical
energy.
When bonds combine they release energy hence stability increases.
When bonds separate they absorb energy hence potential energy
increases.
Mass energy : energy can be transformed from mass.
 this equation is used in nuclear chemistry for nuclearE mcΔ = Δ 2
reactions.
Thermal Energy - the energy of a hot object.
The higher the temperature of a compound, the greater the thermal energy.
Molecules that rotate are form of kinetic energy
Molecules that vibrate are a combination of kinetic and potential energy.
Hence, molecules can rotate and vibrate
Radiant Energy - the energy content of electromagnetic radiation
Very important in chemistry
The interactions between radiations and matter helps chemicals to study the
structure of compounds.
Radiant Energy = Electromagnetic Radiation , for example: sunlight, microwave
radiation, radiowaves and many more.
Energy Transformation - Energy can be transformed from one form to another. For example:
when you hold a hot cup of coffee during winter.
Conservation of Energy - Energy can be transformed from one form to another but it can’t be
lost.
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