GEOL 2390 Study Guide - Sea Level Rise, Shear Modulus, Bulk Modulus

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Introduction to Environmental Geology and class expectations
Remember - increasing costs
thus, use only after regional use of topi, geol maps etc
(almost) always on local scale
most widely used
e.g. depth of bedrock
apply sudden pressure to surface
disturbance (pressure) moves outwards from point of impact/source in form of
velocity of a wave
elastic properties of material
V = (k +4/3 mu)/p
V = velocity of wave
k = bulk modulus resistance to change in volume
mu = shear modulus resistance to change in shape
p = density
low V material over high V material
why? density.
other (non-horizontal) waves reach interface and can travel along interface but con-
trolled by higher velocities
while travelling, continuous refraction up
eventually a geophone will record refraction wave 1st (before slower-moving hori-
zontal wave)
plot time of arrival vs. distance
slope of first few points - define V1
break in slope = critical distance (Cd)
distance where waves going through V1 and waves going through v1 - V2
- V1 arrive at same time
Depth = (Cd/2) [(V2-V1)/(V2+V1)]^0.5
not strictly hazards course but ~40% of time
most dramatic/awesome/spectacular
significant 4 - 'headline' catchers
hazard types
endogenic hazards - 'internal' earth processes
ground shaking
surface faulting
eq - induced ground failures, subsidence
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