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MBIO 4440 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Dna, Escherichia Coli, Chromosome


Department
Microbiology
Course Code
MBIO 4440
Professor
Silvia Cardona
Study Guide
Final

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MBIO 4440

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MBIO 4440
Lecture 1
Systems Microbiology (SM)
System Microbiology is a field of Microbiology that looks at the interactions between
the parts of a microbiological system. The goal is to understand how the system
functions
What is a Microbiological System?
a single species system
a microbial community formed by different microbes
a microbial community and its environment
Let’s start with a cell
Our microbial system is Escherichia coli and we will be looking at the cell cycle with a
systems microbiology approach
We will try to understand how different functions are integrated during the cell cycle
We will identify challenges with the model and ways to overcome them
Let’s start with a very simple microbial cell: our mighty model of gram negative bacteria
Escherichia coli. We will look at the cell cycle as an example. Yes, E. coli is under a lot of
pressure. When growing fast E. coli has to split every 20 min. Can you imagine if your body
would have to grow half of your head, one arm and leg every 20 min, everything while you are
performing your normal activities?
Open questions for the next two lectures
How are DNA replication and cell division coordinated?
How do bacterial cells divide to maintain their normal size?
How can a systems approach help to answer these questions?
The Prokaryotic Cell Cycle
The cell cycle is a sequence of events from formation of a new cell through the next cell
division
Three events to coordinate during cycle:
Cell growth
DNA replication and segregation
Cell division
Notably, scientists still have an incomplete understanding of the processes that control
DNA replication, cell growth and cell division
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Let’s visualize a cell cycle in a simple way. Let’s have a hypothetical cell with a single non-
replicating chromosome. We can distinguish three steps: Inter-initiation time (I), chromosome
replication time (C) and Division time (D). The I+C+D rule assumes that cells start their cycle by
performing the biosynthesis needed for growth and replication of the chromosome. When
synthesis is completed in “I” minutes, chromosome replication begins and cells complete their
division in C+D minutes.
In this incremental model the key factor that controls the cell cycle is the size of the cell and
cell size increments exponentially with growth rate. Faster the cell grows the bigger the size
E.coli size changed where it grows in LB or defined medium
This circular model is not the best way to represent cell cycle some steps take longer
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