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Study Guide

ACB 330- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 37 pages long!)

37 pages24 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ACB 330
Professor
Kulyk William
Study Guide
Midterm

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U of S
ACB 330
Midterm EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Genomic equivalnace: lecture 1
Roux study:1.2 of genetic info was in each side of blastomere. Each
blastomere is TOTIPOTENT: contains all info required to form entire
embryo.
Spemann:each nucleus retains all genetic info until ~16 cell stage
Somatic cells remain totipotent at later stages, however they decline as
age of nuclei increases.
Blau: differentiated live cells retain genes for muscle protein, that it
no longer needs.
Somatic cells retain ALL genes through development
Differentiation comes from gene expression not loss
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Regulation of Gene Expression: Lecture 2
5’3’
Promoter region: RNA polymerase II binds to nuclease here. moves dwn
DNA 5’3’. Makig priar RNA trasript. @ trasriptio teriatio
site. RNA pol II leaves.
Pre-MRNA: contains all exons, leader sequences and introns. It has a
7’ethl ap: ritial or MRNA to id to riosoes
Poly A tail: resist to endonuclease attack. To add this tail, cleave off end, use
ATP and Poly(a) polymerase.
MRNA: has only exons + 7 cap +poly A tail.
Exon splicing: SnRNPs form spliceosome which remove intron
Regulation:
1) Transcriptionally: gene can be transcribed to be active/inactive
2) RNA processing.: exon splicing. Different combinations of exons.
Cause huge difference: bcl-x either inhibits or promotes apoptosis
bases on the exons.
3) RNA stability: longevity of transcripts can vary. Stable=transcribed
more readily. Uses microRNAs, to tag
4) Translation: mRNA may be prevented from matching up with a
ribosome
5) Post-translational modifications:
Proteolytic cleavage: yields different proteins from single polypetide.
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