1. Where is the location of the olfactory organs?
2. Why is the olfactory epithelium lined with mucus? Why is this important?
3. What are the structures that cause the air current in the nasal cavity?
4. What structure lies on the ethmoids cribiform plate?
5. What is different about the olfactory synaptic path to the brain relative to all other
1. Where is the location of the gustatory receptors?
2. Where is the gustatory cortex?
3. Do the action potentials, caused by the taste buds, travel to the same side
(ipsilarteral) or to the opposite side (contralateral) of the brain as the side of the
taste buds? For instance, if the right side of the tongue sends action potentials to the
brain, will the right or the left brain be stimulated?
1. What structure(s) make up the outer ear and what is the function?
2. What structure(s) make up the middle ear (be specific) and what is the function?
3. What structure(s) make up the inner ear?
15 Special Senses
4. What cranial nerve innervates the inner ear? Does this nerve split? If so, what part of
the nerve innervates what part of the inner ear?
5. Tell me about the path of the sound waves from the external ear and stop at the
structure of the inner ear. Remember: MISO
6. Tell me about the path of the sound waves, and the structures involved, from the
oval window through the cochlea.
7. How to we know what we are hearing? Basically, how do we convert fluid vibrations
or waves (which the brain does not understand) into electrical impulses (which the
brain does understand)? Be Specific.
8. How can you differentiate between high pitched sounds and low pitched sounds?
9. What is the name of the structure immediately downstream from the tympanic
10.What is the name of the structure immediately upstream from the round window?
11.What is the name of the structure immediately upstream from the auditory tube
(which empties the sound into the nasopharynx)?
12.What is the name of the structure that moves and depresses hair cell cilia in
response to fluid vibrations?
13.What is the name of the structure/ layer that the hair cells are anchored in?
14.What is the functional unit of the cochlea? Where can it be found?
15 Special Senses
1. Equilibrium is part of what kinesthetic sense?
2. What is the primary function of the vestibular system?
3. What is the name of the structure of the inner ear that is responsible for equilibrium?
4. What is the name of the structure that is at the base of the semicircular canals?
HINT: They reside in the swellings.
5. Where would you find the ampullae?
6. What are and where would you find the structures responsible for detecting
rotational or turning movements of the head and body?
7. What is the function of the ampullae? HINT: They are your Magic Bullets.
8. Where would the hair cell that has kinocilia be located?
9. What is the name of the structure of the inner ear that has kinocilia?
10.What is the function of the structure of the inner ear that has the kinocilia?
11.Why do we have three semicircular canals?
12.What is the function of the semicircular canals?
13.What is the name of the structure in the inner ear that maintains balance and aids in
the detection of rotation?
15 Special Senses
14.What is the name of the structures that detect movement of the head up/down (i.e.,
gravitational effects) and linear acceleration of the body?
15.What is the function and location of the maculae?
16.Where is the location of the structure that detects movement of the head up/down
and linear acceleration?
17.What is the cranial nerve that innervates the vestibular complex (i.e., the ampullae
and maculae)? Be Specific.
18.Where do the neural impulses go after they leave the vestibular complex? In other
words, what part of the brain does the neural impulse go to first? Be Specific.
1. What is the name of the outermost layer(s) of the eye? Where would you find the
2. What is the middle layer(s) of the eye that can be found in around the posterior
cavity? HINT: the layer in between the sclera and retina.
3. What is the name of the innermost layer(s) of the eye?
4. What is the name of the coloured portion of the eye?
5. What is the name of the transparent layer that covers the iris?
6. What is the name of the central opening in the middle of the iris? What is its