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ARCH 112 Study Guide - Final Guide: Banpo, Relative Dating, Mohenjo-Daro

Course Code
ARCH 112
Study Guide

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Midterm 1 Review
- 50 minutes to write
- 30 MC
- 5 of 8 short answer (4 marks each)
- Total of 50 marks
- Opscan sheet: write ID number and test version
- Please bring: pencil, pen, student ID number
- Evolutionary trends: toolkits etc
- Up to and including chapter 12 in text
- Be able to identify where the site is (ex: Africa, Europe etc)
- What time period site falls into
- What hominin/cultural group falls into the site
- What characteristics in the site makes is worth knowing (unique qualities)
- Look at review on the website
- With keywords be able to tell definition and how we use the word
- Who person is, how research is relevant, able to identify specific sites
- Relative or absolute dating method, general reference to when can use those dating
methods, how arch. Apply that method
- How long material takes to break down into original component (half-life)
- Material remains and past human behaviour
- 5 goals of arch.
- Short answer: lists of things
- Early arch: understanding age of the earth, understanding antiquity of humans
- Late arch: pursuit of science, mutual respect
- Material culture: what arch look at, artifacts, ecofatcs, features
- Use of anology
- Relative dating methods: Stratigraphy, fluorine analysis, seriation, diagnostic artifacts

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- Absolute dating methods: radiocarbon, potassium argon, thermoluminescence,
- Human evolution : know dates, geographical ranges, important sites
- Evolutionary tends or physical characteristics
- Cultural innovations, tool traditions
- *how do humans fit in the animal kingdom? (order or primates, closest to chimps)
- 4 theories of bipedalism (seed eating, scavenging, provisioning, stay cool)
- How do Neanderthals fit in human evolution? (direst ancestors, interbred with archaics,
outcompeted by archaics)
- 2 theories of origins of modern humans (out of Africa, multiregional)
- Environment : how does affect human evolution, how respond to environment, how does
it change over time
- Pleistocene – Holocene transition (2 processes affecting sea levels, eustacy and
isostatic rebound)
- Upper Palaeolithic societies : development of h/g societies, long distance trade,
technology (indirect percussion, soltrean and Magdalenian tool traditions, composite
tools, nets, atlatl), exploiting megafauna, broadening resources, settlement patterns
(small sites interspersed with a few large aggregation sites)
- Regionalism
- Parietal art: animals representations, hand outlines, round minerals, stone lamps,
Altamira, Chauvet, created in gathering places, communicating traditions and mythology,
no longer thought to be hunting magic, dated by rediocarbon
- Mobiliary art: bone, stone, antler, figurines, batons, plaques , animal teeth, beads, flutes,
dated by stratigraphy and context
- Australia: h/g, sites, tool traditions
Midterm 2 Review
Midterm #2 Review ARCH 112.3 (01) Kris Sullivan Fall 2008
Please bring the following to the exam: a pencil, a pen, and your student ID
The multiple choice section must be filled out in pencil – the rest of the test must be
filled out in pen. This review consists of all the major concepts and questions covered in
the course since the first midterm, starting with the Origins of Agriculture and ending
with the Archaeology of Southeast Asia (China). Any material covered in class since the
first midterm (and the correlating chapters in the textbook) will be testable in the second

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midterm. Please note the class lectures have not always followed the same order as the
textbook. You are responsible for reading the appropriate chapters. You can verify the
chapters by consulting the class syllabus. Phone, visit, or email me if you have any
questions. Here are some hints for studying:
KEY WORDS: you should be able to define the term, give relevant examples, and
explain how the term relates to archaeology.
PEOPLE: you should know who the person is, how their research is relevant to
archaeology, and be able to identify any terms, theories, or sites associated with that
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES: you should be able to identify where the site is, the time
period of the site’s components, the culture group the site is associated with, the
importance of the site, and the types of evidence found at the site that supports its
PERIODS OR CULTURE GROUPS: you should be able to identify the geographical
region each period is found in, the chronological order of the periods, and how culture
groups fit into the periods. You should be able to describe the defining characteristics of
each period and culture group, including geography, settlement patterns, material
culture, associated sites, and associated technologies. I find that the best way to
organize this material for study is to create tables of each geographical region.
DATES: all dates on the exam will be in BP (Before Present). This means that any
dates given in the textbook as B.C. will not appear on the exam. Consult your class
notes for the appropriate BP dates, or find the date in the textbook and add 2000.
specific dates for an archaeological site. You DO need to know the dates of important
innovations (for example, the dates for the appearance of agriculture in each region).
KEY QUESTIONS: these questions are designed to help you study by allowing you to
take concepts learned in class and applying them to generalized questions concerning
the rise of agriculture, the origin of complex societies, and the archaeology of specific
regions. This does not mean these exact questions will be found on the exam.
11 Origins of Agriculture
Key Words
Agriculture Rachis Zagros Mountains
Animal Husbandry sub-Saharan Population Growth Theory
Domestication Oasis Theory Carrying Capacity
Fertile Crescent V. Gordon Childe Nathan Cohen
Mesoamerica Hilly Flanks Hypothesis Accidental By-Product Theory
Neolithic Revolution Robert Braidwood Annuals
Key Questions
What characteristics constitute agriculture?
Why would humans want to domesticate plants and animals?
Discuss the phrase “collection versus production.”
What are the physiological affects of domestication on plants & animals?
How can archaeologists see domestication in the archaeological record?
In what regions does agriculture occur independently, and when?
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