Sample Questions for the Final Exam Part I (Dec. 2012)
1. What are the disadvantages to making ATP by fermentation?
2. What are the advantages to making ATP by fermentation?
3. During chemiosmosis +
a. energy is released as H ions move freely across the mitochondrial membranes
b. ATP is synthesized when H + ions move through a protein port provided by the ATP
c. energy is generated by coupling exergonic reactions with other exergonic reactions
d. a concentration gradient is generated when large numbers of H + ions are passively
transported from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the mitochondrion’s intermembrane
e. H ions serve as the final electron acceptor
4. What determines if whether a reaction will occur spontaneously?
5. If a reaction occurs spontaneously, will it always occur rapidly?
6. In biological systems ATP functions by
a. acting as an enzyme and lowering the activation energy
b. adjusting the pH of solutions to maintain optimal conditions for enzyme activity
c. providing the energy necessary for an endergonic reaction by coupling it with an exergonic
d. regulating the speed at which endergonic reactions occur
e. interacting with enzymes as a cofactor to stimulate chemical reactions
7. How would each of the following food preservation methods interfere with a microbe’s
enzyme activity and ability to break down food:
8. A mutation that is passed from a parent to offspring is:
a) a spontaneous mutation
b) repaired by cellular machinery
c) present in germ line cells
d) somatic cell mutations 2
9. The control of delivery of mRNA to the cytoplasm is an example of:
a. translational regulation
b. posttranslational regulation
c. transcriptional regulation
d. posttranscriptional regulation
e. deoxyribonucleic regulation
10. Genetic mutations are…
c. inherited changes in DNA.
e. All of the above
12. Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that causes gradual
deterioration of the muscles. It is seen almost exclusively in boys born to normal parents, and
usually results in death in the early teens.
a) Is this disorder caused by a dominant or
b) Is its inheritance sex-linked or autosomal?
c) How do you know?
d) Why is this disorder almost never seen in girls?
13. Why didn’t Mendel find linkage between the genesfor traits he studied?
Pea plants have 7 genes and he studied 7 traits… Actually the seed colour (yellow vs green) and
flower colour (white vs purple) genes are both on chromosome #1
14. What is the significance of crossing over (which leads to recombination) to the process of
15. With Mendel and Genetics we talked about the inheritance of phenotypes. How does the
DNA sequence of a chromosome determinethe phenotype? What role do proteins have in
determining the phenotype?
16. In guinea pigs, an allele for rough fur (R) is dominant over an allele for smooth fur (r); an
allele for black coat is dominant (B) over an allele for white (b). You have an animal with rough
black fur. What cross would you do to determine whether the animal is homozygous or 3
heterozygous for each trait? What phenotype(s) would you expect if the animal is homozygous?
17. Which statement about an individual that is homozygous for an allele is false:
a. each of its cells possesses two copies of that allele
b. each of its gametes contains one copy of that allele
c. it is true-breeding with respect to that allele
d. its parents were necessarily homozygous for that allele
e. it can