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BIOL 224- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 34 pages long!)Premium

34 pages184 viewsWinter 2018

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 224
Professor
Chedrese
Study Guide
Final

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U of S
BIOL 224
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Friday, January 5, 2018
BIO 224 - Introduction to Animal Diversity: Form &
Function
Subject
-What is an Animal: 1) multicellular eukaryotes 2) heterotrophs (no cell walls) 3)
reproduce asexually or sexually
-Origin: flagellated protist > cells in these protists became more specialized (specific
functions) and layered [picture in powerpoint]
-Animalia: monophyletic > evolved from a common ancestor but there is one
genetically determined body plan for each animal phyla
-Animals can be characterized by features of their “body plan”
Vary in: embryonic development, specialized tissue types, body cavity type & body
symmetry
-Sexual Reproduction: 1) undergo meiosis to produce gametes 2) sperm + egg fuse to
form zygotes which develop into new individuals
-Zygote Cleavage = division of cells in the early embryo
Zygotes undergo rapid cell cycles but don't grow significantly they turn into a mass
of cells (MORULA) which derive into a hollow sphere of single layer cells
(BLASTULA)
**** picture/diagram of MORULA and BLASTULA in powerpoint slide ****
-Blastula invaginate & undergoes further differentiation into 3 germ layers: Ectoderm
(skin and nervous system), Mesoderm (muscles and skeleton), Endoderm (digestive
tract)
-Germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs,
-MOST ANIMALS ARE Triploblasts > have 3 germ layers
-Protostomes: (blastopore) mouth first anus later VS Deuterostomes: (blastopore)
anus then mouth
-Diploblasts = 2 germ layers (jellyfish, coral, etc.)
!1
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Friday, January 5, 2018
Differentiating Animals based on Body Cavities
-Body Cavity (coelum) of most animals are coelomate (fluid filled cavity), formed within
mesoderm of embryo
-Acoelomate = no body cavity (ex: flat worms)
-Pseudocoelumate = fluid-filled space between endo & mesoderm (ex: roundworms)
Body Symmetry of Animals
-Radial = divided longitudinal through central axis (no left or right side, just top and
bottom)
-Diploblastic animals *
-Bilateral = divided vertically (most animals, including humans)
-Specialized head with feeding and sensory organs
-Digestive chamber with mouth and anus
-Triploblastic animals *
Important Points *
-animals have a common evolutionary history
-body systems also have an evolutionary history
-Heterotrophy allows animals to use other organisms for food + live in environments
unfavourable to autotrophs
-
!2
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