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Study Guide

BIOL 224- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 34 pages long!)

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BIOL 224

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[BIOL 224] Comprehensive winter guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Friday, January 5, 2018 BIO 224 - Introduction to Animal Diversity: Form & Function Subject - What is an Animal: 1) multicellular eukaryotes 2) heterotrophs (no cell walls) 3) reproduce asexually or sexually - Origin: flagellated protist > cells in these protists became more specialized (specific functions) and layered [picture in powerpoint] - Animalia: monophyletic > evolved from a common ancestor but there is one genetically determined body plan for each animal phyla - Animals can be characterized by features of their “body plan” • Vary in: embryonic development, specialized tissue types, body cavity type & body symmetry - Sexual Reproduction: 1) undergo meiosis to produce gametes 2) sperm + egg fuse to form zygotes which develop into new individuals - Zygote Cleavage = division of cells in the early embryo • Zygotes undergo rapid cell cycles but don't grow significantly they turn into a mass of cells (MORULA) which derive into a hollow sphere of single layer cells (BLASTULA) **** picture/diagram of MORULA and BLASTULA in powerpoint slide **** - Blastula invaginate & undergoes further differentiation into 3 germ layers: Ectoderm (skin and nervous system), Mesoderm (muscles and skeleton), Endoderm (digestive tract) - Germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs, - MOST ANIMALS ARE Triploblasts > have 3 germ layers - Protostomes: (blastopore) mouth first anus later VS Deuterostomes: (blastopore) anus then mouth - Diploblasts = 2 germ layers (jellyfish, coral, etc.) !1 find more resources at
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