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HIST 151 - Lecture Notes for the Entire Semester (ultimate review guide)

Course Code
HIST 151

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History 151.
Week 2: Origins, Origin Stories and Indigenous Histories
Cosmologies (world views)
Old world (Europe):
oEurocentric: negates the perspectives of the natives see as their world (new world) isn’t new to them
oEvolutionary way of thinking: linear, trajectory, time line; living a nomadic way of life is not civilized
oPatricentric: privilege of the man, tracing family lineage through the father, men had a larger say in
government and ownership than women.
New World (Canada):
oCircular way of thinking: interconnectedness, cycles, develop through situations o Matricentric: privilege
of the woman, tracing family lineage through the mother, large say in government
What was North America like before European Encounters?
12 language families in Canada
People of the Saskatchewan region o Algonquian o Athabaskan o Siouan
100 million people in Americas, 10 million above Mexico
50-80 million people in Europe
How did people get here?
Land bridges and midcontinental route (land bridge of Asia)
Ocean voyages along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts
Coastal theories (island hopping)
Multiple ways people got into Americas; changed throughout the years
Why did they come here?
Push factors: keeping them in the Old World o Lack of resources o Environmental stress
oOverpopulation o Warfare
Pull factors: Bringing them to the New World o Better and newer resources
oEconomic trade o Curiosity o Prestige (Columbus)

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North American Societies
Matricentric; mother centered, women have a central place
Warfare; human replacement, mourning war, women decide who why and when you go to war, it’s not
about land or resources but about repopulation (kidnapping/adoption) and replacing the person o Ex: if you
replace the Chief you become the Chief; his mother is now your mother, his brother is your brother etc.
Government: emphasis on councils and consensus, elected bodies o Council of chiefs: municipal and
provincial― ‖ level o Civil chiefs: dealt with trade problems, issues within the tribe o Women’s council: all
men elected by women but could be replaced by women o Elders council: the elders of the tribe
North American Spiritual Systems
Anthropomorphism: everything has a soul
Circular (everything is equal)
Demographics before Europeans
Many trade routes, very complicated; Young Street is most ancient trade route
Focusing on water ways (rivers), the authority over water was very important (St. Lawrence River)
St. Louis (Cahokia) had a population in the 1000’s and rivaled with Mayan cities; o were nomadic
then agricultural revolution and climate change (had to adapt), o they gathered into smaller groups and
moved; giving up their temples (higher way of living) and moved to live on the land and become hunters
and gatherers (digression)
Montreal (Hochelaga) population in the 1000’s
Dales, Oregon (Win-Quatte) with a high population it was the major trade center for salmon
Oma ma ma (Earth Mother)
Creation of the World (how the world came to be)
The frog
Trickster ( shape shifter; inseparable from Little Wolf)
Little Wolf (little brother of trickster)
Beaver (privilege, human from another world)
Plants, rocks, flowers,
Not until much later that trickster creates humans

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You cannot understand Canadian history without understanding the Indigenous past
Origin stories help us to explain the cosmological framework of early Canadian societies
These beliefs and traditions were not part of a New World order but the legacy of ancient customs steeped
in local landscapes and history
Week 3: Cultural Encounters and Colonial Projects; Explorers, Merchants and
Colonization: a foreign group settling and occupying another groups cultural and territorial landscape
Contact zones: metaphorical zone where different cultures and ideas meet
Encounters: physical and exchange of ideas and views
Revision quest: labels and language
The Stages of Colonization
Exploration o Going where no one has gone before
Fission o One group breaks away from the main group and produces offspring
Migration o Moving to unknown, unoccupied territory
Colonization o Establishing residency in these new areas, tap into the resources
Settlement o Fully exploits and occupies the new territory
What was Europe like before North American Contact?
1 million people in 16th century o Population boom because of an agriculture revolution and decline of
1600’s 75% of population relied on farming(land) however it was becoming scarce so people urbanized
Social and economic systems were based on feudal systems (lords, classes, slaves)
Patricentric society (male dominant) o Women could work in hospitals or as servants
Witchcraft trials; focused on females supernatural powers, if you didn’t stay within the norm you were
deemed a witch
The government is Kings and Queens and by 1700’s the concept of divine rights― ‖ (God given right to
rule) was established ex: Louis 14, Henry 8
Courts controlled everything and were appointed by the Kings advisors
Roman catholic church was fully established by 1700’s o The Pope is God’s messenger on Earth;
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