MCIM 321 Final: MCIM 321 Comprehensive Final Exam Study Guide

100 Pages

Microbiology and Immunology
Course Code
MCIM 321
Bretscher Peter

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find more resources at  Demonstrates that there are protective molecules in immune serum o Antibodies  protective molecules in immune serum o Antigens  molecules/substances to which antibodies specifically bind  von Behring and Kitasato  first to demonstrate the protective role of antibodies by employing antibodies to the tetanus toxin o Protective immunity shown to be due to the presence of something in immune serum that was absent in normal serum – violates Pasteur’s Exhaustion Hypothesis o Toxoid  toxin which is no longer toxic due to chemical modification or denaturation; physical structure is still closely related to the original toxin, so it can be used to induce an immune response with out the negative effects of the toxin Properties Of The Specific Molecules In Immune Serum  Agglutination  clumping of bacteria in reaction to immune serum  Immune serum added to a filtrate of bacterial cultures precipitates with the filtrate – because the bacteria produce soluble, filterable molecules, and immune serum contains antibodies specific for these soluble antigens  Precipitin Reaction  process by which precipitate is formed; very specific reaction  Agglutination by immune serum is the equivalent immune reaction with particulate antigens as the Precipitin Reaction is with soluble antigens  Immune serum kills bacteria in vitro by causing their lysis – property is lost after the immune serum is heated to 56C  Bordet  showed that heated immune serum will still kill when complemented with non-heated normal serum o Heated immune serum provides the heat-resistant specific recognition molecules and antibodies, and the normal serum provides the heat labile non-specific complement required for lysis  Killing of bacteria can also occur in vivo – ability to kill is transferable with immune serum Cells And Immunity  Humoral Immunity  effects can be transferred from immune to normal animals by transferring serum o Soluble antibodies are an expression of this  Metchnikoff  advocated the importance of cells in immunity o Experiment – inserted a thorn into the transparent larva of a starfish, next day found the thorn to be surrounded by phagocytes  Phagocytes  mobile cells that able to take up and digest foreign matter o Suggested that macrophages are the mediators of Natural/Innate Resistance  Innate Resistance  the innate ability to resist infection  Wright  helped end to disagreement over the importance of cellular vs humoral immunity by demonstrating that immune serum contained opsonins o Opsonins  antibodies that specifically enhance phagocytosis or opsonization of the antigen 3 find more resources at
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