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PHSI 208 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Spinal Cord, Neuron, Brave New World


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHSI 208
Professor
Baillie Landon
Study Guide
Midterm

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PHSI 208
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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M1: Introduction to Physiology and Homeostasis
Learning objectives:
1. Define physiology.
2. List the levels of organization studied in physiology.
3. Name the 10 physiological organ systems of the body.
4. Distinguish between mechanistic and teleological approaches to studying physiology.
5. Define and describe homeostasis.
6. Explain the different control systems that exist to maintain homeostasis.
7. Describe biological rhythms.
Physiology = the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts,
iludig all its heial ad phsial poesses; koledge of atue
Homeostasis
Internal environment
Dynamic steady state
Control systems
Read: 1.0-12
Physiology is an integrative science
- Emergent properties = a property of a complex system has, but which the individual members
do not have
o Due to complex, non-linear interactions of different components
o E.g. emotions in humans, The Genome Project
- Complex properties cannot be explained by the whole system, you have to break it down
Physiology is closely tied to anatomy the structure of a cell, tissue or organ must provide a physical
base for its function (structure dictates function)
Cells = smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes
Tissues = collection of cells that have related functions
Organs = formation of tissues into a structural and functional unit
Organ systems = integrated groups of organs
Circulatory
Heart, blood vessels, blood
Transport of materials b/w all cells of the body
Digestive
Stomach, intestine, liver,
pancreas
Conversion of food into particles; elimination of
some wastes
Endocrine
Thyroid gland, adrenal gland
Coordinate body functions through synthesis
and release of regulatory molecules
Immune
Thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
Defense against foreign invaders
Integumentary
Skin
Protection from external environment
Musculoskeletal
Skeletal muscles, bone
Support and movement
Nervous
Brain, spinal cord
Coordination of body functions through
electrical signals and release of regulatory
molecules
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Reproductive
Ovaries and uterus, testes
Perpetuation of species
Respiratory
Lungs, airways
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Urinary
Kidneys, bladder
Maintain water and solute concentration; waste
removal
The systems are all integrated
- One change can affect many things
Physiologist often distinguish b/w function & mechanism
- Function of a physiological system (Teleological approach)
o The h of the system or the event
o E.g. why do RBCs transport oxygen? Cells need oxygen and the RBCs bring it to them
- Mechanisms of a phys. system (Mechanistic approach)
o The ho of a sste; eaies poess
o E.g. how do RBCs transport oxygen? Oxygen bind to hemoglobin molecules in the RBCs
Translational research = uses the insights and results gained from basic biomedical research on
mechanisms to develop treatments and strategies for preventing human diseases
- eh to edside
Homeostasis = egulatio of the od’s iteal environment in spite of exposure to external
environment
- Homeostasis and regulation of internal environment are key principles of physiology
- Term coined by Walter Cannon, 1929
o Homeo = like or similar (range of values)
o Homo = same
o Stasis = condition (not a static state)
- Some recommended the term homeodynamics as stasis is sometimes used to say that
soethig does’t hage
Homeostasis and Disease
Pathological condition (or disease state) = occurs when normal function is disrupted and body fails to
maintain homeostasis
- Has two categories:
o Internal causes (failure of an internal process) = include abnormal growth of cells,
autoimmune diseases and genetic disorders
o External causes = include toxic chemicals, physical trauma and foreign invaders
- Pathophysiology = the study of body functions in a disease state
Loss in homeostasis is when disease occurs
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