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Anthro 101 Midterm 2 Exam Review

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University of Waterloo
ANTH 100
Nancy Barrickman

Anthro 101 Midterm 2 Exam ReviewChapter 8Understanding the past Archaeological and Paleoanthropological Methods Lecture 13 Archaelogical Methods Part 1 Paleoanthropology is the overall study of fossil remains Archeology bones not fossils Finding Sites Likely locations or salvage Surface such as survey or aerial views Subsurface Test pits auger Radar remote sensingLikely sites Close to waterSalvaging very different form research Interested in great lake regions Site formation ProcessesEnvironmentalWater Carnivores Preservations bias Water can affect archeological site because it can move things around Preservation Bias somethings changes and others dont Cultural Activity pattern of habitations are particular have to be closer to water Taphonomy study of process of transformation from the biosphere to the lithosphere Usually focus on animal and human remains but can do this for everything How do you study for this Look for decay Site must be worked out in order to understand its depositional history Excavation Destructive sample recovery and preservationDig away layers of dirt Destructive process Usually only want to sample a site Want to get every bit of materialContext is everythingGot to know where it came form and all the information surrounding it Got to know the geological to determine the historyFossilization Process in which the organic elements of bone are mineralized Fossils are produced by fossilization Turning bones into rocksHow to become a fossilFirst you die then you decay and get trampled Got to be buried in order to be a fossil by either water wind are elements that bury you Going to find artifacts Rocks are the first good cutting tool that we had Eco facts tell us how the environment was like was it hot Cold etc Phytoliths tiny pieces of rockPollen told us what type of food humans started planting Why does a plant want a tiny rockStructure make it less clumsyFeatures are stuff that you can move are big things What happens after when the data is collectedTrying to see patterns and analyzing the material Experimental Archaeology attempt to replicate behavior and to study material results There are many questions in how things were done in the pastEthnoarchaelogy its when you study living groups Observe their acts and how they get their food Archaeology slow meticulous methodical workstarted about 200 years agovery few sites on this planet represent a perfect snapshot of that timePaleotologicalpaleoanthropologyFossilsLimited material culture ArchaeologyMaterial cultureBioarchaeology bones not fossilsFinding Siteslook for likely locations something not suburban near water where people most likely to liveyou are salvagingcultural resource management if modernizing archaeologists are brought in to salvageSurface
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