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Midterm

Anthro 101 Midterm 2 Exam Review


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH100
Professor
Nancy Barrickman
Study Guide
Midterm

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Anthro 101 Midterm 2 Exam Review
Chapter 8 - Understanding the past Archaeological and Paleoanthropological
Methods
Lecture 13
Archaelogical Methods Part 1
Paleoanthropology- is the overall study of fossil remains
Archeology- bones not fossils
Finding Sites
Likely locations or salvage
Surface such as survey or aerial views
Subsurface- Test pits/ auger
Radar/ remote sensing
Likely sites
Close to water
Salvaging very different form research
Interested in great lake regions
Site formation Processes
Environmental
Water, Carnivores, Preservations bias
Water can affect archeological site because it can move things around
Preservation Bias- something’s changes and others don’t
Cultural Activity pattern of habitations, are particular have to be closer to
water
Taphonomy- study of process of transformation from the biosphere to the
lithosphere
Usually focus on animal and human remains but can do this for everything
How do you study for this? Look for decay
Site must be worked out in order to understand its depositional history
Excavation
Destructive sample, recovery and preservation
Dig away layers of dirt
Destructive process, Usually only want to sample a site
Want to get every bit of material
Context is everything!
Got to know where it came form and all the information surrounding it
Got to know the geological to determine the history

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Fossilization
Process in which the organic elements of bone are mineralized
Fossils are produced by fossilization
Turning bones into rocks
How to become a fossil
First you die, then you decay and get trampled
Got to be buried in order to be a fossil by either water, wind, are elements
that bury you
Going to find artifacts
Rocks are the first good cutting tool that we had
Eco facts- tell us how the environment was like, was it hot. Cold etc.
Phytoliths- tiny pieces of rock
Pollen- told us what type of food humans started planting
Why does a plant want a tiny rock?
Structure make it less clumsy
Features- are stuff that you can move, are big things
What happens after when the data is collected?
Trying to see patterns and analyzing the material
Experimental Archaeology- attempt to replicate behavior, and to study material
results
There are many questions in how things were done in the past
Ethnoarchaelogy- it’s when you study living groups
Observe their acts and how they get their food
Archaeology
- slow, meticulous, methodical work
- started about 200 years ago
- very few sites on this planet represent a perfect snapshot of that time
Paleotological/paleoanthropology
Fossils
Limited material culture (?)
Archaeology
Material culture
Bioarchaeology (bones not fossils!)
Finding Sites
- look for likely locations; something not suburban, near water, where people most
likely to live
- you are salvaging/cultural resource management: if modernizing, archaeologists
are brought in to salvage
Surface

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Surveys
Aerial views
Subsurface
Test pits/auger
Radar/remote sensing
Excavation
Destructive
Sample
Recovery
- takes very long (ex. siftng)
Preservation
Site Formation Processes
Environmental
Water
- can percolate through sediments and move things around
Carnivores
- also can disrupt preservations
Preservation bias
Soil conditions
Humidity
Cultural
Patterns of habitation across a landscape
- example, being close to water, important?
Trade
- similar/unique things seen elsewhere from certain area = traded
Material distribution across a site e.g. middens (trash dump)
Taphonomy
- study of process of transformation from the biosphere to the lithosphere
- focused on animal and human remains
- living world rock world?
- do experiments to see what is most likely to be preserved
Decomposition?
Trampling?
Burial?
Fossilization?
Context
Provenience
Location of finds
- exact location in which you find everything
Datum
- point from which you measure everything else
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