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Final study sheet.docx

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University of Waterloo
ANTH 100
Jennifer Liu

Final study sheet ANTH 102 Chapter 8- Political and Legal Systems authority: the ability to take action based on a person’s achieved or ascribed status or moral reputation. band: the political organization of foraging groups, with minimal leadership and flexible membership. big-man or big-woman system: a form of political organization midway between tribe and chiefdom involving reliance on the leadership of key individuals who develop a political following through personal ties and redistributive feasts. chiefdom: a form of political organization in which permanently allied tribes and villages have one recognized leader who holds an “office.” corporate social responsibility (CSR): business ethics that seek to generate profits for the corporation while avoiding harm to people and the environment. critical legal anthropology: an approach within the crosscultural study of legal systems that examines the role of law and judicial processes in maintaining the dominance of powerful groups through discriminatory practices rather than protecting less powerful people. influence: the ability to achieve a desired end by exerting social or moral pressure on someone or some group. law: a binding rule created through enactment or custom that defines right and reasonable behavior and is enforceable by the threat of punishment. moka: a strategy for developing political leadership in highland Papua New Guinea that involves exchanging gifts and favors with individuals and sponsoring large feasts where further gift giving occurs. nation: a group of people who share a language, culture, territorial base, political organization, and history. norm: a generally agreed-upon standard for how people should behave, usually unwritten and learned unconsciously. policing: the exercise of social control through processes of surveillance and the threat of punishment related to maintaining social order. political organization: groups within a culture that are responsible for public decision making and leadership, maintaining social cohesion and order, protecting group rights, and ensuring safety from external threats. power: the capacity to take action in the face of resistance, through force if necessary. sectarian conflict: conflict based on perceived differences between divisions or sects within a religion. social control: processes that, through both informal and formal mechanisms, maintain orderly social life. social justice: a concept of fairness based on social equality that seeks to ensure entitlements and opportunities for disadvantaged members of society. state: a form of political organization in which a centralized political unit encompasses many communities, a bureaucratic structure, and leaders who possess coercive power. trial by ordeal: a way of determining innocence or guilt in which the accused person is put to a test that may be painful, stressful, or fatal. tribe: a political group that comprises several bands or lineage groups, each with similar language and lifestyle and occupying a distinct territory. war: organized and purposeful group action directed against another group and involving lethal force. Chapter 9-Communication call system: a form of oral communication among nonhuman primates with a set repertoire of meaningful sounds generated in response to environmental factors. communication: the process of sending and receiving meaningful messages. creole: a language directly descended from a pidgin but possessing its own native speakers and involving linguistic expansion and elaboration. critical discourse analysis: an approach within linguistic anthropology that examines how power and social inequality are reflected and reproduced in communication. critical media anthropology: an approach within the cross-cultural study of media that examines how power interests shape people’s access to media and the contents of its messages. discourse: culturally patterned verbal language including varieties of speech, participation, and meaning. displacement: a feature of human language whereby people are able to talk about events in the past and future. ethnosemantics: the study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences in particular cultural contexts. global language: a language spoken widely throughout the world and in diverse cultural contexts, often replacing indigenous languages. historical linguistics: the study of language change using formal methods that compare shifts over time and across space in aspects of language such as phonetics, syntax, and semantics. khipu: cords of knotted strings used during the Inca Empire for keeping accounts and recording events. language: a form of communication that is based on a systematic set of symbols and signs shared among a group and passed on from generation to generation. language family: a group of languages descended from a parent language. logograph: a symbol that conveys meaning through a form or picture resembling that to which it refers. phoneme: a sound that makes a difference for meaning in a language. pidgin: a contact language that blends elements of at least two languages and that emerges when people with different languages need to communicate. productivity: a feature of human language whereby are able to communicate a potentially infinite number of messages efficiently. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: a perspective in linguistic anthropology which says that language determines thought. sign language: a form of communication that uses mainly hand movements to convey messages. sociolinguistics: a perspective in linguistic anthropology which says that culture, society, and a person’s social position determine language. tag question: a question placed at the end of a sentence seeking affirmation. Textese: an emerging variant of written English and other languages associated with cell phone communication and involving abbreviations and creative slang. Chapter 10-Religion animatism: a belief system in which the supernatural is conceived of as an impersonal power. cargo cult: a form of revitalization movement that emerged in Melanesia in response to Western and Japanese influences. doctrine: direct and formalized statements about religious beliefs. life-cycle ritual: a ritual that marks a change in status from one life stage to another; also called rite of passage. magic: the attempt to compel supernatural forces and beings to act in certain ways. myth: a narrative with a plot that involves the supernaturals. pilgrimage: round-trip travel to a sacred place or places for purposes of religious devotion or ritual. priest/priestess: male or female full-time religious specialist who
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