ANTH100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Paranthropus Boisei, Paranthropus, Carl Linnaeus

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH100
- Father Joseph-Francois Lafitau first to apply anthropology in Canada
- Ethnology cultural behavioural patterns; Ethnography study of human
societies; Archaeology analyzing material remains
- Biological anthropology evolution, Darwin, biology and culture. Sub-disciplines
include paleoanthropology, primatology, human biology, and skeletal biology
- Linnaeus taxonomy, included humans in classification, gave humans 4 categories
- Jean-Baptiste Lamarck evolution and inheritance
- Georges Cuvier catastrophism, direct contradiction of Lamarck
- Thomas Malthus Essay on the Principle of Population; bell-curve of popularity
- Charles Lyell uniformitarianism
- Charles Darwin natural selection, sexual reproduction increases variation, difficulty
explaining source of variation
- Alfred Russel Wallace independently discovered natural selection
- Protein synthesis transcription (forms mRNA) and translation (mRNA arrives at ribosome
and message is translated into groups of 3 mRNA bases called codons)
- Meiosis increases genetic variation by providing a random assortment of chromosomes
- Gregor Mendel principle of segregation, principle of dominance and recessiveness, and
principle of independent assortment. 1800 Mendelian human traits
- Variation maintained by mutation, gene flow, genetic drift (founder effect), recombination;
genetic variation greater within racial groups than between them
- Blumenback gave humans 5 races, slightly more progressive than Linnaeus (less focus on
skin colour, as it was in the mid-19th century)
- Biological determinism everything is inherited; Eugenics stemmed from biological
determinism; certain raises are superior to others, Francis Galton
- Alfred Binet first IQ test, initially used to help children struggling in school, focused on
memory, vocabulary, and ability to discriminate between related items.
- L.N. Terman modified test to correspond with preconceived notions of who’s intelligent
- Skin colour influenced by hemoglobin, melanin, and carotene
- Vitamin D Hypothesis depigmentation related to need for vitamin D
- Hot-dry environments Bergman’s Rule (increase SA to release heat)
- Allen’s Rule shorter appendages more preferable in cold climates
- Warm-humid environments reduced rate of body cooling
- Hypoxia reduction in available oxygen due to reduced barometric pressure
- High altitudes natives acclimatize permanently; non-natives do not
- High altitude challenges edema, acute mountain sickness, subacute infantile mountain
sickness, and chronic mountain sickness
- Classification systems start with physical similarities, indicate evolutionary relationships
- Homoplasy similar characteristics of organisms derived separately
- Cladistics focus on derived traits (changed since ancestral condition)
- Biological Species Concept species is a group of organisms that interbreed; no gene flow
- Recognition Species Concept identify members of their own species for mating purposes
- Ecological Species Concept natural selection; species = group of organisms in same niche
- Phylogenetic Species Concept species split based on identifiable parental patterns
- Allopatric Speciation geographic barriers isolate part of a population (genetic isolation)
- Parapatric Speciation new species arise due to selection and partial genetic isolation
- Sympatric Speciation selection without geographic isolation. Not as well supported
- Primate Pattern generalized; limbs & locomotion, diet & teeth, senses & brain, maturation,
learning, & behaviour
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- Primates have a maximum of 2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, and 3 molars
- Strepsirrhines wet nose, strong olfaction, tooth comb, small brain, infant parking, small
body, uterus, nocturnal
- Haplorrhines dry nose, weak olfaction, big brain, hairy skin covering on nose, fovea
- Madagascar 92% edemic reptile species, 100% edemic primates, 83% edemic plants
- Lemurs indri is largest, mouse lemur is smallest
- Lorisoidea lorises are slow, climbing quardrupeds, galagos are vertical leapers/climbers
- Platyrrhines (New World) S. and Central America, broad nose, arboreal, prehensile tail
- Catarrhines (Old World Monkeys) Africa and Asia, narrow nose, no prehensile tail
- Owl monkeys = only nocturnal Platyrrhines; capuchin monkeys use tools, N/Central
America; howler monkeys = hyoid bone to amplify vocalizations
- Cercopithecoids check pouch, diverse habitats; colobines multi-chambered stomach, S.
Asia and India, sexually dimorphic, prefer mature leaves; red colobus monkey prey of
chimpanzees; probiscus giant nose
- Orangutan largest arboreal primate, quadrupedal, social system is semi-solitary, tool use
- Gorilla largest living primate, knuckle-walking, not aggressive, digest often
- Chimpanzees Africa, knuckle-walking, social system, tools, aggressive, sexually dimorphic,
social aspect of hunting is important
- Bonobo multi-male/multi-female, females sometimes dominant, have sex to solve conflict
- Shorter lifespan better in unpredictable environments because you reproduce sooner
- Not only humans are capable of language Beatrice and Allen Garner (Washoe sign
language) and Sue Savage Rumbaugh (Kanzi categorical symbols)
- Sarah Blaffer Hardy Hanuman Langurs in India Infanticide Hypothesis; sexual selection
- Paleoanthropology find sites, concentrate research to site, fossil excavation
- Olduvai Gorge Louis and Mary Leakey, previously a lake, now many hominin remains and
fossilized animal bones, stone piles = evidence of shelter and stockpiling
- Relative dating methods stratigraphy (sediment layers, relative age); biostratigraphy
(compare same species from different sites, index fossils necessary); seriation (bell-curve of
popularity timeline created)
- Chronometric/radiometric dating potassium and argon dating (½ life of 40K = 1.3 billion
years, specimens must be 200 kya, samples must be taken from different sites); carbon-14
dating (½ life is 5730 years); thermoluminescence (heating artifacts releases electrons so
you can age them based on number of electrons); dendochronology (master sequence of
growth rings in tees)
- Olduvai Gorge dating techniques K/Ar method (salt) and biostratigraphy (fossilized pigs)
- Ida lemur-like, died in almost perfect condition due to carbon dioxide pulses and
preserved due to lack of oxygen in lake
- Hominoids large canines and front teeth; hominins reduced prognathism
- Humans vs. chimps humans have basin-like shape, less elongated ossa coxae, muscle
attachments to create torque, broader iliac blade, further back gluteus maximus, foramen
magnum is further underneath skull, S-shaped spine, wider pelvis, lower limbs angled more
inward, longitudinal arch in feet, opposable big toe, habitual bipeds
- Thermoregularity hypothesis bipedalism evolved to cope with overexposure to sun
- Groups with strong sexual dimorphism are not monogamous
- Sahelanthropus tchadensis Chad, ~7 mya, derived (small face, intermediate enamel, small
canines, anterior foramen magnum) and primitive traits (large brow ridge, chimp-sized
brain, small). First hominin or last common ancestor
- Ardipithecus 5.8-4.4 mya, Ethiopia, trees, anterior foramen magnum, powerful arms
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- Cranial capacity humans = 1325cc; chimps = 395cc; gorilla = 506cc
- Australopiths Australopithecus and Paranthropus bipedal, small brains (ape waist up,
human waist down), large teeth, thick enamel (prognathic)
- Australopithecus afarensis Ethiopia, 1974 = foun Lucy, 3.5 ft tall adult female
- First family 14 A. afarensis, 475cc, prognathic, sexual dimorphism, bipedal, Laetoli
footprints 3.5 mya, may have slept in trees, Dikika child (female based on teeth, 3.3 mya)
- Australopithecus africanus 3-2 mya, big molars and small canines, sexual dimorphism,
Taung child (Raymond Dart, 3 years old), bipedal, small brain
- Paranthropines most derived of Australopithecus, large teeth, sagittal crest
- Paranthropus aethiopicus ‘black skull’, sexual dimorphism, sagittal crest
- Paranthropus boisei Mary Leakey in Olduvai Gorge, 2.2 mya, robust, sexually dimorphic
- Paranthropus robustus S. Africa, 530 cc, bipedalism
- Australopithecus vs. Homo brain size, precision grip, tools, language. Australopithecus
more adapted for closed environments; Homo = omnivorous
- Homo habilis E. Africa, 2.4-1.6 mya, “handyman”, diverged into H. erectus, 40% bigger
cranial capacity than chimps and Australopithecus, bipedal
- Dorsal surface = exterior of flake; ventral = bulb of percussion, Erailleur scar, and ripples
- Oldowan Tool Industry 2.5 mya, simple, direct percussion, paranthropines & homo habilis
- Acheulian Tool Industry 1.6 mya, composite, standardized form, hand axes, homo erectus
- Levallois Tool Industry 300 kya, composite, homo heidelbergensis
- Mousterian Tool Industry 300 kya, variety, composite, smaller, meat-eating, neandertals
- Upper Paleolithic Tool Industry 40 kya, blades similar to modern knives, pressure flaking
- The Afar NE Ethiopia, ‘Salom’, age determined by bands of white volcanic ash (3.3 mya),
most consider it species Australopithecus afarensis (same as Lucy)
- Homo erectus Eugene Dubois, 1891, Indonesia, low forehead, large brow ridges, 700-
1250cc, femur, increased body size/robustness, greater encephalization, sexually dimorphic,
sagittal keel along midline of skull
- Homo erectus from Africa E. Turkana (1.8 mya, smallest cranium); W. Turkana (1.6 mya,
young male); Olduvai (1.4 mya, 1067cc largest); Gona (1.3 mya, large birth canal); Daka (1
mya, Asian-like features) H. erectus was first to leave Africa
- Dmanisi fossils 1.7 mya, Oldowan tools, similar to H. erectus
- H. erectus from Indonesia Dubois Java (1891, 813-1059 cc, 1.6-1 mya, thick cranial vaults,
sagittal keel, brow ridges, nuchal tori
- Zhoukoudian cranial and dental evidence, 670-410 kya, ‘dragonbone’, cave occupation to
deal with cold weather (or killed by hyenas), scavengers (not hunter-gatherers), fire hearths
- Lantian County 1.15 mya, fire-treated pebbles, cranial remains of 2 H. erectus females
- Yunxian County 800-580 kya, possible hunting abilities of H. erectus
- Hexian County S. China, 400 kya
- African H. erectus homo ergaster; Asian H. erectus homo erectus
- European H. erectus Spain (Attapuerca, oldest hominin fossil); Italy (Ceprano, 9-800 kya)
- Pleistocene glacations and interglacials; rainfall was main impact; glacial period = most of
Western Europe cut off due to ice sheets and dry areas
- Premodern humans succeededH. Erectus, except for coexistance in Asia for ~300,000 years
- Homo heidelbergensis is considered by some as archaic homo sapiens
- H. erectus 750-1251 cc, thick cranial bones, marked postorbital constriction, frontal keel,
transverse occipital tonus, pronounced brow ridges
- H. heidelbergensis 1100-1450 cc, broad parietal bones, reduced postorbital constriction,
broad frontal bone, enlarged upper occipital bone, smaller and separated brow ridges
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Document Summary

Father joseph-francois lafitau first to apply anthropology in canada. Ethnology cultural behavioural patterns; ethnography study of human societies; archaeology analyzing material remains. Biological anthropology evolution, darwin, biology and culture. Sub-disciplines include paleoanthropology, primatology, human biology, and skeletal biology. Linnaeus taxonomy, included humans in classification, gave humans 4 categories. Georges cuvier catastrophism, direct contradiction of lamarck. Thomas malthus essay on the principle of population; bell-curve of popularity. Charles darwin natural selection, sexual reproduction increases variation, difficulty explaining source of variation. Alfred russel wallace independently discovered natural selection. Protein synthesis transcription (forms mrna) and translation (mrna arrives at ribosome and message is translated into groups of 3 mrna bases called codons) Meiosis increases genetic variation by providing a random assortment of chromosomes. Gregor mendel principle of segregation, principle of dominance and recessiveness, and principle of independent assortment. Variation maintained by mutation, gene flow, genetic drift (founder effect), recombination; genetic variation greater within racial groups than between them.

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