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ANTH 100
Keriann Mc Googan

- Father Joseph-Francois Lafitau  first to apply anthropology in Canada - Ethnology  cultural behavioural patterns; Ethnography  study of human societies; Archaeology  analyzing material remains - Biological anthropology  evolution, Darwin, biology and culture. Sub-disciplines include paleoanthropology, primatology, human biology, and skeletal biology - Linnaeus  taxonomy, included humans in classification, gave humans 4 categories - Jean-Baptiste Lamarck  evolution and inheritance - Georges Cuvier  catastrophism, direct contradiction of Lamarck - Thomas Malthus  Essay on the Principle of Population; bell-curve of popularity - Charles Lyell  uniformitarianism - Charles Darwin  natural selection, sexual reproduction increases variation, difficulty explaining source of variation - Alfred Russel Wallace  independently discovered natural selection - Protein synthesis  transcription (forms mRNA) and translation (mRNA arrives at ribosome and message is translated into groups of 3 mRNA bases called codons) - Meiosis increases genetic variation by providing a random assortment of chromosomes - Gregor Mendel  principle of segregation, principle of dominance and recessiveness, and principle of independent assortment. 1800 Mendelian human traits - Variation maintained by mutation, gene flow, genetic drift (founder effect), recombination; genetic variation greater within racial groups than between them - Blumenback gave humans 5 races, slightly more progressive than Linnaeus (less focus on skin colour, as it was in the mid-19 century) - Biological determinism  everything is inherited; Eugenics  stemmed from biological determinism; certain raises are superior to others, Francis Galton - Alfred Binet  first IQ test, initially used to help children struggling in school, focused on memory, vocabulary, and ability to discriminate between related items. - L.N. Terman  modified test to correspond with preconceived notions of who’s intelligent - Skin colour influenced by hemoglobin, melanin, and carotene - Vitamin D Hypothesis  depigmentation related to need for vitamin D - Hot-dry environments  Bergman’s Rule (increase SA to release heat) - Allen’s Rule  shorter appendages more preferable in cold climates - Warm-humid environments  reduced rate of body cooling - Hypoxia  reduction in available oxygen due to reduced barometric pressure - High altitudes  natives acclimatize permanently; non-natives do not - High altitude challenges  edema, acute mountain sickness, subacute infantile mountain sickness, and chronic mountain sickness - Classification systems  start with physical similarities, indicate evolutionary relationships - Homoplasy  similar characteristics of organisms derived separately - Cladistics focus on derived traits (changed since ancestral condition) - Biological Species Concept  species is a group of organisms that interbreed; no gene flow - Recognition Species Concept  identify members of their own species for mating purposes - Ecological Species Concept  natural selection; species = group of organisms in same niche - Phylogenetic Species Concept  species split based on identifiable parental patterns - Allopatric Speciation  geographic barriers isolate part of a population (genetic isolation) - Parapatric Speciation  new species arise due to selection and partial genetic isolation - Sympatric Speciation  selection without geographic isolation. Not as well supported - Primate Pattern  generalized; limbs & locomotion, diet & teeth, senses & brain, maturation, learning, & behaviour - Primates have a maximum of 2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, and 3 molars - Strepsirrhines  wet nose, strong olfaction, tooth comb, small brain, infant parking, small body, uterus, nocturnal - Haplorrhines  dry nose, weak olfaction, big brain, hairy skin covering on nose, fovea - Madagascar  92% edemic reptile species, 100% edemic primates, 83% edemic plants - Lemurs  indri is largest, mouse lemur is smallest - Lorisoidea  lorises are slow, climbing quardrupeds, galagos are vertical leapers/climbers - Platyrrhines (New World)  S. and Central America, broad nose, arboreal, prehensile tail - Catarrhines (Old World Monkeys)  Africa and Asia, narrow nose, no prehensile tail - Owl monkeys = only nocturnal Platyrrhines; capuchin monkeys use tools, N/Central America; howler monkeys = hyoid bone to amplify vocalizations - Cercopithecoids  check pouch, diverse habitats; colobines  multi-chambered stomach, S. Asia and India, sexually dimorphic, prefer mature leaves; red colobus monkey  prey of chimpanzees; probiscus  giant nose - Orangutan  largest arboreal primate, quadrupedal, social system is semi-solitary, tool use - Gorilla  largest living primate, knuckle-walking, not aggressive, digest often - Chimpanzees  Africa, knuckle-walking, social system, tools, aggressive, sexually dimorphic, social aspect of hunting is important - Bonobo  multi-male/multi-female, females sometimes dominant, have sex to solve conflict - Shorter lifespan  better in unpredictable environments because you reproduce sooner - Not only humans are capable of language  Beatrice and Allen Garner (Washoe – sign language) and Sue Savage Rumbaugh (Kanzi – categorical symbols) - Sarah Blaffer Hardy  Hanuman Langurs in India – Infanticide Hypothesis; sexual selection - Paleoanthropology  find sites, concentrate research to site, fossil excavation - Olduvai Gorge  Louis and Mary Leakey, previously a lake, now many hominin remains and fossilized animal bones, stone piles = evidence of shelter and stockpiling - Relative dating methods  stratigraphy (sediment layers, relative age); biostratigraphy (compare same species from different sites, index fossils necessary); seriation (bell-curve of popularity – timeline created) 40 - Chronometric/radiometric dating  potassium and argon dating (½ life of K = 1.3 billion years, specimens must be 200 kya, samples must be taken from different sites); carbon-14 dating (½ life is 5730 years); thermoluminescence (heating artifacts releases electrons so you can age them based on number of electrons); dendochronology (master sequence of growth rings in tees) - Olduvai Gorge dating techniques  K/Ar method (salt) and biostratigraphy (fossilized pigs) - Ida  lemur-like, died in almost perfect condition due to carbon dioxide pulses and preserved due to lack of oxygen in lake - Hominoids  large canines and front teeth; hominins  reduced prognathism - Humans vs. chimps  humans have basin-like shape, less elongated ossa coxae, muscle attachments to create torque, broader iliac blade, further back gluteus maximus, foramen magnum is further underneath skull, S-shaped spine, wider pelvis, lower limbs angled more inward, longitudinal arch in feet, opposable big toe, habitual bipeds - Thermoregularity hypothesis  bipedalism evolved to cope with overexposure to sun - Groups with strong sexual dimorphism are not monogamous - Sahelanthropus tchadensis  Chad, ~7 mya, derived (small face, intermediate enamel, small canines, anterior foramen magnum) and primitive traits (large brow ridge, chimp-sized brain, small). First hominin or last common ancestor - Ardipithecus  5.8-4.4 mya, Ethiopia, trees, anterior foramen magnum, powerful arms - Cranial capacity  humans = 1325cc; chimps = 395cc; gorilla = 506cc - Australopiths  Australopithecus and Paranthropus  bipedal, small brains (ape waist up, human waist down), large teeth, thick enamel (prognathic) - Australopithecus afarensis  Ethiopia, 1974 = foun Lucy, 3.5 ft tall adult female - First family  14 A. afarensis, 475cc, prognathic, sexual dimorphism, bipedal, Laetoli footprints 3.5 mya, may have slept in trees, Dikika child (female based on teeth, 3.3 mya) - Australopithecus africanus  3-2 mya, big molars and small canines, sexual dimorphism, Taung child (Raymond Dart, 3 years old), bipedal, small brain - Paranthropines  most derived of Australopithecus, large teeth, sagittal crest - Paranthropus aethiopicus  ‘black skull’, sexual dimorphism, sagittal crest - Paranthropus boisei  Mary Leakey in Olduvai Gorge, 2.2 mya, robust, sexually dimorphic - Paranthropus robustus  S. Africa, 530 cc, bipedalism - Australopithecus vs. Homo  brain size, precision grip, tools, language. Australopithecus more adapted for closed environments; Homo = omnivorous - Homo habilis  E. Africa, 2.4-1.6 mya, “handyman”, diverged into H. erectus, 40% bigger cranial capacity than chimps and Australopithecus, bipedal - Dorsal surface = exterior of flake; ventral = bulb of percussion, Erailleur scar, and ripples - Oldowan Tool Industry  2.5 mya, simple, direct percussion, paranthropines & homo habilis - Acheulian Tool Industry  1.6 mya, composite, standardized form, hand axes, homo erectus - Levallois Tool Industry  300 kya, composite, homo heidelbergensis - Mousterian Tool Industry  300 kya, variety, composite, smaller, meat-eating, neandertals - Upper Paleolithic Tool Industry  40 kya, blades similar to modern knives, pressure flaking - The Afar  NE Ethiopia, ‘Salom’, age determined by bands of white volcanic ash (3.3 mya), most consider it species Australopithecus afarensis (same as Lucy) - Homo erectus  Eugene Dubois, 1891, Indonesia, low forehead, large brow ridges, 700- 1250cc, femur, increased body size/robustness, greater encephalization, sexually dimorphic, sagittal keel along midline of skull - Homo erectus from Africa  E. Turkana (1.8 mya, smallest cranium); W. Turkana (1.6 mya, young male); Olduvai (1.4 mya, 1067cc – largest); Gona (1.3 mya, large birth canal); Daka (1 mya, Asian-like features)  H. erectus was first to leave Africa - Dmanisi fossils  1.7 mya, Oldowan tools, similar to H. erectus - H. erectus from Indonesia  Dubois Java (1891, 813-1059 cc, 1.6-1 mya, thick cranial vaults, sagittal keel, brow ridges, nuchal tori - Zhoukoudian  cranial and dental evidence, 670-410 kya, ‘dragonbone’, cave occupation to deal with cold weather (or killed by hyenas), scavengers (not hunter-gatherers), fire hearths - Lantian County  1.15 mya, fire-treated pebbles, cranial remains of 2 H. erectus females - Yunxian County  800-580 kya, possible hunting abilities of H. erectus - Hexian County  S. China, 400 kya - African H. erectus  homo ergaster; Asian H. erectus  homo erectus - European H. erectus  Spain (Attapuerca, oldest hominin fossil); Italy (Ceprano, 9-800 kya) - Pleistocene  glacations and interglacials; rainfall was main impact; glacial period = most of Western Europe cut off due to ice sheets and dry areas - Premodern humans succeededH. Erectus, except for coexistance in Asia for ~300,000 years - Homo heidelbergensis is considered by some as archaic homo sapiens - H. erectus  750-1251 cc, thick cranial bones, marked postorbital constriction, frontal keel, transverse occipital tonus, pronounced brow ridges - H. heidelbergensis  1100-1450 cc, broad parietal bones, reduced postorbital constriction, broad frontal bone, enlarged upper occipital bone, smaller and separated brow ridges - Africa  Kabwe/Broken Hill, Zambia (600-125 kya, mosaic of derived and primitive traits); Bodo, Ethiopia (600 kya, cut marks = potential cannibalism, evidence of butchering, earliest H. heidelbergensis) - Europe  Swanscombe, England (300 kya, brain expansion); Attapuerca, N. Spain (600-540 kya, 80% of all Pleistocene hominin remains, neandertal-like pattern, earliest evidence of deliberate body disposal) - China  Dali (1260 cc, thin cranial walls, 230-180 kya); Jinniushan (200 kya, possible Chinese H. sapiens ancestor) - Middle Pleistocene hominins  Africa is H. heidelbergensis to H. sapiens; Europe is H. heidelbergensis to neandertals; Asia is H. heidelbergensis to extinction; Acheulian tools - Evidence of hunting in Schoningen Germany and island of Jersey off coast of France - Neandertal  130-29 kya, remains found in Neander Valley (Germany), ape-like brain, close-range hunting, limb bones indicate ape-like walking, 1245-1740 cc, rounded crania (occipital bun), big faces to adapt to cold climate, small back teeth and large front teeth, robust and heavily-muscled - La Chapelle in SW France  40 years old, 1620 cc, adult male, extreme variation - S. France, Moula-Guercy Cave site  78 broken skeletal fragments, possible cannibalism - S.t. Cesaire in SW France  35 kya, Paleolithic tools, contemporaries with modern humans - Central Europe  Croatia: Krapina (intentional burial, 130-110 kya); & Vindia (42-32 kya) - W. Asia  Isreal (Tabus and Kebara – hyoid bone); Iraq (intentional burial; compassion) - Central Asia  Uzbekistan (Mousterian tools indicate long dispersal from Europe to Asia) - Neandertals and modern humans separated 700-500 kya - Complete replacement model  200 kya, humans dispersed from Africa, mtDNA = maternal inheritance, high mutation rate, high copy number; speciation event - Humans are less genetically variable than other species - Modern African populations are more variable than other species - Partial replacement model  modern humans dispersed out of Africa and interbred - Regional continuity model  Milford Wolpoff, gene flow prevented speciation, did not arise exclusively from Africa - Modern humans  small face, protruding chin, rounded skull, less robust - Africa  Ethiopia (195 kya, Omo Kibish) and Herto, Ethiopia (160-154 kya, evidence of African origins of H. sapiens) - Asia  China (continuity from H. erectus to modern humans, Tinyuan cave showed African origin but possible interbreeding) - Australia  Sahul (50 kya, reached Australia via bamboo rafts from Indonesia); Lake Mungo (14-9 kya, archaic traits, earliest finds) - Central Europe  Oase Cave, Romania (3 kya); Mladec in Czech Republic (31 kya) - W. Europe  Cro-Magnon, France (Aurignacian tools); Portugal (possible hybridization, indicating interbreeding between Neandertals and modern humans) - The Little People  Indonesia, 13 kya, Homo florensiensis; Insular dwarfing  Divergence due to a lack of gene flow sometimes favours a reduced body size. Islands  smal
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