Study Guides (238,076)
Canada (114,909)
ANTH 100 (56)

ANTH 102 Exam Quick Review Notes This is the summary in point forms of all the important stuff. Perfect for exams!

28 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
ANTH 100
Robert Park

Anthropology Notes Lecture #2 -What it is to be human, i.e. study of humans -holistic-holism -seeks to make generalizations -comparative Sub-disciplinaries of anthropology in North America -> 4 sub disciplines Cultural (or socio-cultural) Anthropology Linguistic (Anthro) Biological (or Physical) Anthro Archaeological Anthro Sometimes: Applied Anthropology Culture => Applied Anthropology -Main reason for adaptability -Main reason for difference from other animals -Edward Taylor -Not through heredity but through growing up in a particular society and being expressed to a specific cultural tradition Definitions of culture Inuits teaching here is foreign to them by education, learn by observing Defining Characteristics of culture -can be general and specific certain norms -is learned -behaviour is learned or genetic all culture -enculturation learning culture -is shared -is symbolic dog/chien (language) -language one of most distinct properties of human nature -affects nature (ex. What, when, how to eat) (how to excrete waste) -is patterned problems with social engineering because dont understand cultural complementary -is adaptive evolution can also be maladaptive -can be hierarchy -national, international, society and sub cultural Lecture #3 What anthropologist do... Cultural Anthropology -Ethnography field work and description -Ethnology cross cultivation comparison interpreration 3 citations: -Fieldwork -Analysis -Explanation +Interpretation Fieldwork -distinguishes anthropologists from other socialgists -participant observation -learning thinking and behaving -knowing person by name -asking questions -learning about personal history -acts in their culture -society treats anthropologists as a child -learn language arrange for good and supplies, make friendships -first ones who are friendly tend to be social outcasts -if government gives permission, society may not like because they dont normally like the government. -may not by lying to anthropologists Ethnocentrism -Belief that one own society is center of world -Judging other cultures in reference to own culture -anthropologist has to be aware of own ethnocentrism and pattern aside -cultural relativism view + evaluate beliefs of others in respect to others culture -moral relativism all morals deserve respect -prob: Nazis gassing would be moral Walter Gold Schmidt: Check nutritional and mental health, crime prevalence, aemographic structure, family stability, use of resources way to decide magnitude of moral relativism -anthropologists find dissatisfaction Analysis -reviewing all the field notes they wrote -reading descriptions of other cultures (not just own and one you are studying) -reading anthropological and other social-scientific theory Lecture#4 Explanation and Generalization in Anthropology What anthropologists actually do... 3)Explanation and generalization differences b/w fact and theory 6 Levels #1 ethnography #2 - #6 ethnology -increase level of abstraction and from the spec commonalty to world wide Level #1: Description Ethnography -the activity of description: doing ethnography -books and articles that describes cultures and subcultures ethnographies -ethnographer describes what he/she sees/hears -describes all aspects of society -2 main perspectives -Etic perspective anthropologist own view point -Observation easier to-do if not own culture -Emic perspective insiders view of culture -Society interpretation of what they are doing -Interview getting people to explain what they are doing -Ethnographies from salvage anthropology -1920s anthropology started in university -1950s/1960s focus more on development societies (traditional western) Level #2: Internal Analysis -interpretation of one aspect of a single society in terms of other aspects of the same society -Aztech human sacrifice and cannibalism Michael hanna -250000ppl/year anvally sacrificed -consequences by -heavy population -not many wild animals to hunt -not many domesticated carnivores (leaved off of no animal protein) -not arguing cannibalism in general or corn, cannibalism in world cannibalism specific to Aztecs -most anthropologists focus on internal analysis Level #3: Limited Cross-Cultural Comparison -Attempts to explain patterns within a geographical region -what causes slight diffs w/ geographical region -ex. Inuit in Alaska and the western Canadian Artic compound w/ those living in the central and eastern part of Canadian Arctic Sim: Language Cliff: Hierarchical/galitarear, population densities, resources Level #4: Extended Cross-Cultural Comparison -beliefs/values compounded on a larger scale -Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) -meta index of witness around the world -go through each ethnography and go through each page (trained) -micro fishe large microfilm -Martin Wynte (1978) looked at 61 specific questions relating to statos of women vs. Men in 93 cultures -ex. Access to authorities, role in marriage , restrictions -who can treat property of some economic value. -only males 25.4% -both but males have preferences 38.0% -roughly equally rights 31%, female preference 5.6% Level #5: Middle Range Theory -Testable propositions concerning social forms and cultural patterns that have widespread distribution -Why do they exist -Bronislaw Malinowski Trobiand Islanders Matrlined more related to mother and her relative and less to fathers -mothers brother considered head of household -child inherits from uncle Sigmund Freuds Middle Range Theory of the university of the Oedipus Complex Molinowski realized never this kind of tension between childs father and himself Malinowski realized that it was the authority role, not the sexual role that caused the intention Level #6: Grand or General Theory -Grand theories concern basis social, cultural or mental processes in all societies at all times in all places -Maruin Harris cultural Materialism environment vs. Human society infrastructure; structure (domestic , family structure, age + general roles, political structure, police, military etc.) ; superstructure ideas, philosophy, literature, science, games, ethics obtain shelter, clothing, food, -infrastructure determines structure + superstructure -superstructure reinforces structure -sacred cows Claude Levi-Strauss St. -can be produced to any society -common human structures allows everyone to think in similar ways -myth-similarities in difference myths around the world -human brain programmed to think in opposite -differences in degree differences in kind -incest taboo common everywhere -varies around the world -more recent research: Whorf was wrong -difficult to test -researchers need to find a way to separate effects of language and other aspects in society culture Whorf: Language causing effects on culture Ethnosemantics study of semantic domain -experience trend to be patterned (i.e. change of seasons) -repeatedly watch people doing the same actions -patterned repetitive action sherma -plural: schemata
More Less

Related notes for ANTH 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.