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ANTH100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Uniformitarianism, Taphonomy, Enculturation

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Anthropology 101
Sub-Disciplines of Anthropology: Cultural, Physical, Archaeology, Linguistic Anthropology
Evolution: change in genetics of a population from 1 generation to the next
Anthropology: human culture + evolutionary aspects of human biology
Scientific Method: research where a problem is identified and hypothesis is tested
Biocultural Evolution: biology makes culture + biological evolution, human evolution
Culture: human adaptation, technology, traditions, language, religion + social roles
Species: A group of organisms that interbreed to produce fertile offspring
Society: group of people who share a common culture
Enculturation: process where individuals learn values/beliefs from family, society
Adaptation: response of populations to the environment
Enlightenment: 18th Century philosophical movement in Western Europe
Cultural Anthropology: modern living people began in enlightenment, sociopolitical
*Urban Anthropology: ethnographic studies of inner cities
*Medical Anthropology: relationship between culture and health/disease
*Applied Anthropology: practical applications, activities of archaeologists
Ethnographic: study of non-western societies
Physical Anthropology: biological anthropology- evolution, biology + culture
Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species: how modern species come to be
Anthropometry: measurement of human body parts (osteologists identify variation)
Osteology: study of human skeleton
Bioarachaelogy: study of skeletal remains from archeological sites
Genetics: study of gene structure + inheritance of traits from offspring
Molecular Anthropologists: evolutionary relationship between humans + primates
Primatology: study of biology + behavior of primates
Paleopathology: investigates prevalence of trauma, disease + deficiencies in bones
*Forensic Anthropology: applied anthropological techniques in legal issues, analysis
Archaeology: past anthropology, study of human past through analysis of remains
Artifacts: materials made for use by hominins
Material Culture: use for human activities (tools, art, structures)
Purpose: Lifeways, Chronology, Explain
*Classic Archaeologists: study of Mediterranean civilizations (Roman and Greek)
*Anthropological Archaeology: application of archaeological methods
Archaeological Record: earliest identifiable hominin tools + sites where they’re deposited
Prehistory: millions of years between bipedal hominins and written records
Historical Archaeologists: study past societies where a written record also exists
Ethnoarchaeologists: study modern people to explain archaeological records
Antiquarian: interest between objects + texts of the past (explain Natives + record)

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Stratigraphic: depositional levels of an archaeological site
Archaeometry: applying natural/physical sciences to the investigation of archaeological records
Public Archaeology: conducted for the public good as part of the cultural management
GIS- Geographical Information System
CRM- Cultural Resource Management: uses archaeological expertise, prehistory + illustrators
Archaeology Goals: 1) Reconstruct culture history, chronologies of history
2) Describe ancient lifeways to understand patterns + culture change
Linguistic Anthropology: study of human speech/language origin
-geographical origins + identity, language acquisition in infants + its implications of speech
The Scientific Method:
Science: understanding phenomena through observation, generalization, verification
Empirical: gaining information through explicit techniques
Quantitatively: measurements of quantity: size, number, capacity
Scientific Testing: Statement/explanation that hasn’t been falsified, supported by hypothesis
1. Research
2. Hypothesis
3. Test: Empirical, Data, Verify
4. Theory
Ethnocentric: biased perspective, other cultures seen as inferior to own culture
Culture: learned behaviors (traditions, language, technology, religion) passed down
Social Norms: behavior is considered normal to members in society
Mores: beliefs in a culture + reinforced by influence of behavior
Enculturation: people learn requirements of culture that are appropriate
Biocultural Approach: culture/biology influences our characteristics + changes over time
Biocultural Evolution: humans depend on culture
Principles of Archaeology:
*Relative Dating: close approx. age of something
*Chronometric (Absolute) Dating: trends to help recognize traits based on characteristics
*Principle of Superstition: Study of Stratigraphy (layers elsewhere means same time period)
Typology: study of these types of artifacts from different layers
Protohominins: earliest members of hominin lineage
Multidisciplinary: research that involves experts from several scientific fields
Taphonomy: how bones and other material came to be buried in the earth + preserved as fossils
William Stulkey: worked on Stonehenge, saw soil had layers older layers are deeper
Wilfred Libby: radio carbon dating inventor, Half life is 57, 300 years (how old an artifact is)
Goals of Archaeology: 1) Order to archaeological record
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