: the study of past human cultures through their material remains, (physical anthropology): the study of humans as biological organisms, including evolution and contemporary variation. Has 3 subfields, primatology (study of nonhuman members of primates in the wild and in captivity). paleoanthropology (study of human evolution based on fossils records). Contemporary human biological variation (defining, measuring and attempting to explain differences in the biological makeup and behavior of contemporary humans) literally translates to study of the old . contemporary variation and change. variation and change. Culture refers to people"s learned behavior and shared behaviors and beliefs. Montesquieu (philosopher 18th century, modern cultural anthropologist) is the conceptual roots of cultural anthropology, he suggested cultural differences as a result of different climates. North american cultural anthropology. the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and. : the study of living peoples and their cultures, including. The concept of culture: microculture/ local culture = distinct patterns of learned and shared.