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ARTS111 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Career Development, Po Bronson, Partial Application


Department
Arts
Course Code
ARTS111
Professor
Jayne Hayden
Study Guide
Midterm

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ARTS 111 Study Notes
Career Planning
The “career” emerged from the industrial revolution
The nature of the work is rapidly changing
Continuous learning is necessary
There are many options in today’s organizations; always changing
Relationships between workers and employers is changing less loyalty
Less permanency; Ex. job-sharing, contract work, etc.
Offering of maternity/paternity leave
Abundance of career materials and resources
Safer work environments
Workforce affected by immigration
Careers, Work, and Career Development
Career Development- A lifelong process involving both internal and external factors
Career Development Factors:
1. Physical
2. Psychological
3. Education
4. Economy
5. Social Trends
6. Culture
7. Chance
Career- Total constellation of lifetime roles; More than just paid work (i.e. voluntary work and education)
Work- Activity/energy towards creating something useful for yourself or a group of people; Ex. Volunteering
for the animal shelter
Occupation- Groups of similar positions across companies/organizations and industries; Ex. Accounting,
Human Resources, etc.
Position- A group of similar tasks done by a person, owned by the organization; Ex. Microsoft has an opening
for a Technical Trainer
Job- A group of similar tasks done by a person, owned by that individual (i.e. the result of a successful
interview, when they offer you the position, it is now your job)
Vocation- A calling; Something you feel compelled to do; Ex. Becoming a social worker because you have
always wanted to help others
Career Decision Making (CDM)
Factors Affecting Career Decisions:
Sex/Gender
State of the economy
Family background
Chance
Friends/Peers
Marital situation
Education/Learning
Special acquired skills
Physical characteristics
Cognitive/Special natural abilities
Personality/Temperament
Interests/Values
“We are all writing the story of our life” Po Bronson

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Factors Affecting a Person’s CDM:
Locus of Control
Passion (following your heart)
Self efficacy (confidence)
Career maturity (readiness to make effective career choices)
Positive Change Cycle
Locus of Control- The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate or destinies
Internal- People have control over their own destinies
External- People have no control over their destinies; Apathy
Positive Change Cycle- Helps people move from incorrect/negative goals to more positive ones (i.e. hope)
Commitment- Commit to change and really make an attempt
Information- Gather extensive information and be open to it
Skilled Practice- Find out what skills you have and what you need to work on
Planning- Put goals in writing and continuously set new goals as they are achieved
Pyramid of Information Processing
Myths and Dysfunctional Thoughts
Myths:
There are tests that can tell you what you should do
A career counsellor can tell you what to do
Career decisions can be made in isolation
The CDM process ends when a decision is made
Dysfunctional Career Thoughts:
Are learned from childhood through adolescence and adulthood
Matter of degree
Limits the capacity to learn effective CDM skills
Can be identified, challenged, and altered
Potential Dysfunctional Career Thinking Outcomes:
Anxiety
Procrastination
Dependency on others
Impulsive choice
Limited/Distorted insights about the self
Limited occupational knowledge
Isolating CDM from other issues
Use of stereotypes
Lack of motivation
Lack of confidence in CDM skills
Decision-Making Confusion (DMC)- The inability to understand, initiate or sustain a career decision making
process; Emotions impede engagement and it is an endless cycle
Commitment Anxiety (CA)- The inability to commit to a single choice, let go of alternatives, overcome the
state of indecision, prioritize, and escape the repetitive cycle
Secondary Gain- The fear of making the wrong decision
External Conflict (EC)- Inability to balance between pleasing self and others (self-perception vs. others)

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Theories of Career Development
Characteristics of a Good Career Theory:
Terms and constructs
Factors
Understanding of career choice
Understanding of career events
Research
Practice
Historical Perspective:
Logical Positivists: Parsons and Holland
Developmental: Super
Process: Sampson et al
Constructivists/Narrative: Savickas
Theory on Choosing a Vocation: (Parsons)
1. Self-knowledge- Individuals differ in interests, values, skills, and personality; Evaluated through
interviews and questionnaires
2. Knowledge of world of work- Occupational lists, industry classifications, information on
training/education
3. True reasoning- Cognitive process using analytical skills
Limitations:
- Career choice is treated as a single event
- People in similar jobs are not the same
- Other influencing variables; Emotions
Theory is the core of most modern theory
Tests of abilities, aptitudes, and inventories of interests developed
Organized occupational information (ex. NOC)
Constructivist Career Theory: (Savickas)
Importance of therapeutic relationship
Life themes: meaning making, construct
Not making one career decision for life
Methods: lifelines, journaling, early childhood memories, genograms (family relationships),
autobiographies, role models, mottos
Students with Disabilities
There is little research in this area
Heterogeneous group
Mild disabilities:
Higher unemployment and underemployment
Lower pay
Dissatisfaction with employment
Career theories and instruments: partial application
Fewer life experiences
Low or inaccurate self-efficacy beliefs
Impact of disability
Difficulty understanding strengths/weaknesses
Have an external locus of control
Weak advocates for themselves
Interventions Can Help:
Assess students and improve their self-awareness and CDM skills
Shift to an internal locus of control
Give new experiences
Reveal unconsidered career options and educate on occupational research tools (NOC)
Give successful role models
Inform on employer responsibilities and available accommodations
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