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ARTS 111 Course Notes Includes lecture notes + things said in class... good for midterm and assignments.

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ARTS 111
Jayne Hayden

ARTS 111 Study Notes Career Planning The career emerged from the industrial revolution The nature of the work is rapidly changing Continuous learning is necessary There are many options in todays organizations; always changing Relationships between workers and employers is changing less loyalty Less permanency; Ex. job-sharing, contract work, etc. Offering of maternity/paternity leave Abundance of career materials and resources Safer work environments Workforce affected by immigration Careers, Work, and Career Development Career Development- A lifelong process involving both internal and external factors Career Development Factors: 1. Physical 2. Psychological 3. Education 4. Economy 5. Social Trends 6. Culture 7. Chance Career- Total constellation of lifetime roles; More than just paid work (i.e. voluntary work and education) Work- Activity/energy towards creating something useful for yourself or a group of people; Ex. Volunteering for the animal shelter Occupation- Groups of similar positions across companies/organizations and industries; Ex. Accounting, Human Resources, etc. Position- A group of similar tasks done by a person, owned by the organization; Ex. Microsoft has an opening for a Technical Trainer Job- A group of similar tasks done by a person, owned by that individual (i.e. the result of a successful interview, when they offer you the position, it is now your job) Vocation- A calling; Something you feel compelled to do; Ex. Becoming a social worker because you have always wanted to help others Career Decision Making (CDM) Factors Affecting Career Decisions: Sex/Gender State of the economy Family background Chance Friends/Peers Marital situation Education/Learning Special acquired skills Physical characteristics Cognitive/Special natural abilities Personality/Temperament Interests/Values We are all writing the story of our life Po Bronson Factors Affecting a Persons CDM: Locus of Control Passion (following your heart) Self efficacy (confidence) Career maturity (readiness to make effective career choices) Positive Change Cycle Locus of Control- The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate or destinies Internal- People have control over their own destinies External- People have no control over their destinies; Apathy Positive Change Cycle- Helps people move from incorrect/negative goals to more positive ones (i.e. hope) Commitment- Commit to change and really make an attempt Information- Gather extensive information and be open to it Skilled Practice- Find out what skills you have and what you need to work on Planning- Put goals in writing and continuously set new goals as they are achieved Pyramid of Information Processing Myths and Dysfunctional Thoughts Myths: There are tests that can tell you what you should do A career counsellor can tell you what to do Career decisions can be made in isolation The CDM process ends when a decision is made Dysfunctional Career Thoughts: Are learned from childhood through adolescence and adulthood Matter of degree Limits the capacity to learn effective CDM skills Can be identified, challenged, and altered Potential Dysfunctional Career Thinking Outcomes: Anxiety Procrastination Dependency on others Impulsive choice Limited/Distorted insights about the self Limited occupational knowledge Isolating CDM from other issues Use of stereotypes Lack of motivation Lack of confidence in CDM skills Decision-Making Confusion (DMC)- The inability to understand, initiate or sustain a career decision making process; Emotions impede engagement and it is an endless cycle Commitment Anxiety (CA)- The inability to commit to a single choice, let go of alternatives, overcome the state of indecision, prioritize, and escape the repetitive cycle Secondary Gain- The fear of making the wrong decision External Conflict (EC)- Inability to balance between pleasing self and others (self-perception vs. others) Theories of Career Development Characteristics of a Good Career Theory: Terms and constructs Factors Understanding of career choice Understanding of career events Research Practice Historical Perspective: Logical Positivists: Parsons and Holland Developmental: Super Process: Sampson et al Constructivists/Narrative: Savickas Theory on Choosing a Vocation: (Parsons) 1. Self-knowledge- Individuals differ in interests, values, skills, and personality; Evaluated through interviews and questionnaires 2. Knowledge of world of work- Occupational lists, industry classifications, information on training/education 3. True reasoning- Cognitive process using analytical skills Limitations: - Career choice is treated as a single event - People in similar jobs are not the same - Other influencing variables; Emotions Theory is the core of most modern theory Tests of abilities, aptitudes, and inventories of interests developed Organized occupational information (ex. NOC) Constructivist Career Theory: (Savickas) Importance of therapeutic relationship Life themes: meaning making, construct Not making one career decision for life Methods: lifelines, journaling, early childhood memories, genograms (family relationships), autobiographies, role models, mottos Students with Disabilities There is little research in this area Heterogeneous group Mild disabilities: Higher unemployment and underemployment Lower pay Dissatisfaction with employment Career theories and instruments: partial application Fewer life experiences Low or inaccurate self-efficacy beliefs Impact of disability Difficulty understanding strengths/weaknesses Have an external locus of control Weak advocates for themselves Interventions Can Help: Assess students and improve their self-awareness and CDM skills Shift to an internal locus of control Give new experiences Reveal unconsidered career options and educate on occupational research tools (NOC) Give successful role models Inform on employer responsibilities and available accommodations Gender as an Influence on CDM Work goals and Rationale for Career Choice: (Morgan et Al) Career and home role are of equal importance Values and self-efficacy beliefs Women tend to have people-oriented reasons (ex. being able to help others values are important) and have low-self efficacy in the traditional male-dominated roles Men tend to be drawn to roles with extrinsic rewards (ex. money, respect, etc.) Internal and External Barriers: Options are restricted (reinforcement of female vs. male roles are occurring in school still) Faculty members Underrepresentation in traditionally male-dominated occupations Pay and Promotion: (Hogue; Abel; Roszkowski) Average starting salary ~$10,000/year more for males Males usually more willing to negotiate Risk Averseness: Females more risk-averse Males more willing to take risks Male and Female Dominated Occupations: Professions Gifted children study (Mendez & Crawford) gifted females trend toward having traditional male qualities (assertive, competitive, etc.) and choosing careers that are more male dominated Men in Non-Traditional Occupations: (Lease) Generally, liberal-minded and tend have mothers in non-traditional occupations View that female-dominated jobs had better work-life balance Belief that there is a better chance of moving ahead quicker because fewer men in field Women and Relational Themes: (Crozier & Borges) Having relationships in a career Females in traditional and non-traditional occupations had the same values Females in non-traditional fields still believe they could make a difference / help people Parents as an Influence on CDM Socioeconomic Status (SES), education level, and biogenetic factors of parents are associated with career development of children Parents provide cultural standards, share/model attitudes (verbally or through actions), values, expectations Having Faith in childrens abilities will cultivate higher efficacy Secure attachment of children to parents: Self/environmental exploration kids have home support as well as autonomy Parenting Styles: 1. Indulgent- High responsiveness, low expectations; Not very good at making decisions or getting things done 2. Authoritarian- Low responsiveness, high expectations; Kids do really well because they are driven out of fear usually end up in a career they do not enjoy 3. Authoritative- High responsiveness, high expectations; Kids have higher self-confidence and an appropriate amount of independence, more persistent, and socially confident 4. Uninvolved- Low responsiveness, low expectations; Kids have low self-efficacy and confidence have few opportunities to learn about careers and themselves High Indulgent Authoritative Responsiveness Uninvolved
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