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BIOL 101
Bernard Glick

Biology Exam Review Unit 1 – Genetics Key Terms Traits – distinguishing characteristics or phenotypic features of an individual Inheritance – having certain physical trait that are transmitted from one generation to the next Purebred – having descended from common ancestors of distinct type/breed, where all share similar traits P Generation –the designation for the parent generation F1 Generation – offspring from the cross of the P generation, the first filial generation F2 Generation – offspring from the cross of the F 1Generation, the second filial generation Hybrid – an organism heterozygous for a trait Monohybrid – a cross of two heterozygous individuals that differ in one trait (Aa x Aa) Dihybrid – a cross of two individuals that differ in two traits (AabBb x AaBb) Recessive – having an alleles that is latent (present but inactive) and is therefore not usually expressed unless there is no dominant allele present Mendelian Ratio - ratio of dominant phenotype (homozygous dominant genotype and heterozygous genotypes) to recessive phenotype (homozygous recessive genotype) Gene – a part of the chromosome that governs the expression of a particular trait and can be passed on to offspring Allele –alternate form of a gene located at a particular place on the chromosome Homozygous –having two alleles for a trait that are the same, as is the result in purebreeding; Can either be dominant (AA) or recessive (aa). Heterozygous – having two alleles for a trait that are different (Aa) Genotype – genetic make-up of an organism (AA, Aa, aa) Phenotype – the appearance of a trait in an organism (Brown Hair) Carrier – an organism that is heterozygous for the given trait but does not show the recessive trait. Test Cross – cross of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual, used as a method to determine the unknown genotype Law of Independent Assortment – Mendel‘s second law of inheritance, stating that the inheritance of alleles doesn‘t that affect the inheritance of alleles for another trait Law of Segregation – Mendel‘s law states where the hereditary traits are determined by pairs of alleles from each parent. These alleles separate during gamete formation giving each offspring only one allele from each parent Co-Dominant –the case where both alleles for a trait is dominant (Cat‘s spot, Flower) Multiple Alleles – pattern of inheritance when a gene may have more than two alleles for any given trait Cell Cycle – a continuous sequence of cell growth and division Centromere –the region where two sister chromatids are held together in a chromosome Parent Cell – the original cell that divides to produces two new daughter cells through cell division Daughter Cell – one of the two cells produced during mitosis of the parent cell Cytokinesis – the separation of the cytoplasm and the formation of two new daughter cells (final stage of mitosis) Diploid – cells that contains two copies of every chromosome: somatic (body) cells (2n) Haploid – cells that contain only half of the number of chromosomes: sex cells (gametes); sperm and egg (n) DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that contains genetic material used to construct an organism. It specifies protein synthesis in cells Nucleotide – a molecule composed of a sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group (phosphoric acid) and a nitrogen base Complementary Base Pairs – pairs of nitrogen bases in DNA; adenine pairs with thymine (AT) and guanine pairs with cytosine (GC) Pedigree – diagram that illustrates the genetic relationships among a group of individuals Autosomal Dominant – Disorders occur when disease-causing allele is dominant and an individual has one or more copies of the allele (RR or Rr) like Huntington‘s Disease Autosomal Recessive – Gene found on autosome (non-sex chromosome) and disease causing is recessive and therefore an individual has to have both copies of the recessive (rr) such as Cystic Fibrosis Trisomy – having an extra chromosome usually produced when a gamete with an extra chromosome is fertilized by a normal gamete Non-Disjunction – failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis resulting in the addition or deletion of one or more chromosomes in a gamete Polyploidy – an organism that has more than two (2n) sets of chromosomes. It may have 3n, 4n, or more Gametes – reproductive cells either eggs or sperm, produced during meiosis Karyotypes – illustration or photograph of the chromosome in the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell in an organism Unit 2 – Evolution Genetic Drift – random changes in allele frequencies in a population from generation to generation. Chance plays a significant role, especially when the population is small Bottle Neck Effect – change in gene distribution that result from a rapid decrease in population size; ex. Colour vision deficiency on a small island called Pineglap in the Pacific Ocean The Founder Effect – a change in the gene pool that occurs when a few individuals start a new isolated. The diversity in the gene pool is limited because the founding individuals will have some but not all the alleles and may not be typical of the population; ex. Amish population in Philadelphia Gene Flow – the net movement of alleles from one population to another due to the migration of individuals Mutation – an error in DNA sequence that can be caused by various mutagens such as toxic compound, radiation, or viruses. As well, can cause favourable adaptations that will be passed onto future generations (Evolution) Speciation – is the formation of new species from existing species Unit 3 – Internal Systems Breathing – act of ventilating a respiratory surface with air. Breathing usually accomplished through muscular movements that can be divided into inspiration and expiration Trachea – In vertebrates, the tube that carries air from the nasal passages or mouth to the lungs (windpipe) Pharynx – structure located just behind the mouth that connects the esophagus and trachea Bronchi – (singular bronchus), the passageway that branch from the trachea into the lungs. One bronchus carries into each lung Bronchioles – the passageways that branch from the bronchi into separate lobes of the lungs. The bronchioles divide into smaller and smaller passageways that carry air into all portions of the lungs Alveoli – (singular alveolus) the gas exchange structures within mammalian lungs. Alveoli are tiny pockets with walls made of membrane a single cell thick. Respiratory gases are exchanged across these membrane walls. Diaphragm – a muscle layer that forms the floor of the thoracic cavity. The contraction of the diaphragm contributes to inspiration by increasing the volume of the thoracic. When it relaxes, expiration is taking place. Tidal Volume – the volume of air that is moved out of the lunges in a regular, unforced exhalation Inspiratory Reserve Volume – volume of additional air that can be forcibly inspired into the lungs following a normal inhalation Residual Volume – volume of air that remains in the respiratory tract following a forced exhalation Expiratory Reserve Volume – volume of additional air that can be forcibly expired from the lungs follow a regular exhalation Vital Capacity – the total volume of air that can be move in/out of the lung. The vital capacity is the sum of the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume. Larynx – a structure within the upper respiratory tract that contains the vocal chords (voice box). As air passes through, the vibration of vocal cords can produce sound Intercostals Muscles – muscles of the rib cage. In mammals, these muscles help expand and contract the rib cage and play an important role in breathing Circulatory System – vascular system in which the progress of fluid is controlled by muscle movements so that it follows a specific pattern. Capillary – tiny blood vessel with a wall only a single cell thick. Gases and other substances are exchanged between the circulatory system and the tissues of the body across the capillary walls Arteriole – small artery that takes blood from the arteries to the capillaries Artery – blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart Venule – small vein that carries blood from the capillaries to the veins Vein – blood vessel that carries blood to the heart Red Blood Cell – tiny biconcave disc-shaped cells that do not have nucleus, mitochondria, or ribosomes that carry oxygen or CO 2 which are made in the bone marrow and destroyed/recycled by the liver White Blood Cell – these colourless cells and possess a nucleus and their function to defend the body against pathogens. Platelet – component of the formed portion of the blood. Platelets are fragments of cells that play an important role in the formation of blood clots Plasma – fluid portion of the blood. Plasma is made up of water plus dissolved gases, proteins, sugars, vitamins, minerals and waste products Aorta – the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart into systematic circulation Superior Vena Cava – the main blood vessel that collects blood from the systematic circulation of the body and returns it to the right ventricle of the heart Tricuspid Valves – heart valves located between the atria and ventricles. Tricuspid valves ensure that blood flows only one way through the cardiac cycle Atrioventricular Node – A-V node, located near the atria on the partition between the two ventricles that transmits an electrical impulse over the walls of ventricles to start their contraction. The A-V node fires in response to the impulse produced by contraction of the atria. Sinoatrial Node – (S-A node) bundle of specialized muscle tissue (also known as the pacemaker) located in the wall of the right atrium of the mammalian heart. The S-A node stimulates the muscle fibres to contract and relax rhythmically producing a regular heart beat Stroke Volume – amount of blood forces out of the heart with each heartbeat Cardiac Output – amount of blood pumped by the heart, usually measure in mL per min (mL/min = beat/min x mL/beat) Septum – wall that separates the right and left ventricles of the heart Systolic Pressure – the pressure in the cardiac cycle generates by the contraction of the left ventricle as it force blood out of the heart Diastolic Pressure – pressure in the circulatory system when it reaches the lowest point immediately before another contraction of the ventricles Saliva – watery secretion of the salivary glands; in addition to contain a starch-digesting enzyme, saliva help to lubricate food so it may be swallowed more easily Ducts – tubular canals that carry glandular secretion from one part of the body to another Chyme – thick liquid mixture of partially broken down food and gastric juice that passes from the stomach into the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum Small Intestine – narrow diameter length of the digestive tract between the stomach and large intestine, comprised of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; most products of digestion are reduced to nutrient and absorbed along its length Villi – finger-like projection that line the fold of the small intestine and serve greatly to increase its absorptive surface area Duodenum – a short, wide U-shaped section of the small intestine into which food passes from the stomach, most active in digestion Jejunum – part of the small intestine following the duodenum that breaks down remaining proteins and carbohydrates Ileum – part of the small intestine following the jejunum that absorbs nutrients and pushes undigested material into large intestine Appendix – appendage that comes of the caecum portion of the large intestine. It has no role in digestion but it may have a role in fighting portion Peristalsis – movement of food through the digestive tract, accomplished by a series of wavelike contraction and relaxations of the circular and longitudinal muscles that surround the various parts of the digestive tract Substrate – molecule on which an enzyme acts (Starch, Protein, Fat, & Peptides) Pancreas – organ important in digestion that is the source of several enzymes that act on carbohydrates, fats and peptides which are subunits of proteins Hormone – chemical compound that is manufactured in very small quantities by specialized tissue in one body part of an organism but governs or regulates the activity of a distant body part Intracellular Digestion – type of digestion in which food particles are taken within cells and subjected to the action of enzymes there Extracellular Digestion – digestion of food occurring outside of the body Salivary Glands – three pairs of glands, the parotid, sublingual, and submaxillary that secrete saliva into the mouth Esophagus – tube that connects the mouth to the stomach, line with both circular and longitudinal muscle Stomach – a ―J‖ shaped sac lying between the esophagus and small intestine whose muscles work to physically break down food; its inner lining also contain millions of gastric glands that release gastric juice which begins the chemical breakdown of proteins Pyloric Sphincter – the circular muscle layer that acts as a valve between the stomach and the duodenum, controlling the passage of food out of the stomach Large Intestine – final portion of the digestive system, about 1.5m long, consisting of caecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. Undigested food from the small intestine enters the large intestine through a valve. Some undigested food is digest and then, water and dissolved materials absorbed from the remaining undigested food; which is eliminated from the body Rectum – last 20cm of the large intestine Anus – the opening of the digestion system through which waste is eliminated from the body Amylase – an enzyme that breaks down starch and is produced by the salivary glands and by the pancreas. Salivary amylase is called ptyalin and pancreatic amylase is called amylopsin Liver – organ that has many roles in the body. It makes bile salts from parts of the decomposed hemogolbin molecules, stores some excess chemicals collected from the blood stream, breaks down old red blood cells, and has many roles in digestion such as stimulating duct cells there to release an alkaline fluid containing sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate Gall Bladder – organ that store bile produced in the liver Medulla Oblongata – portion of the brain located at the junction between the spinal cord and the brain. The medulla oblongata controls many automatic functions such as heart rate, respiratory rate, vasoconstriction, and swallowing Unit 4 – Diversity of Life Domain – a level of classification above kingdoms Virus – particulate that contains strands of DNA or RNA surrounded by protective protein coat and that act as mobile genes that parasitize cells Provirus – virus that undergoes a replication cycle in which its DNA become integrated with the host cell chromosomes: the virus can invade the cell but does not kill Taxonomy – practice of classifying animals Taxon – (plural taxa one of a series of progressively smaller groups made when subdividing the three domains and the six kingdoms Homologous – having biological features of a common evolutionary origin Phylogeny – hypothesis about the evolutionary history of groups of organisms Autotroph – an organism that can produce organic molecules from simple inorganic materials thus making its own food (Plants) Heterotrophy – an organism that must derive some of its nutrients from organic molecules formed by autotrophies Endosymbiosis – an association between two organism in which one organism lives permanently inside the body of the other (Tape Worm) Species – a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Diversity – variation of organisms Cladogram – branching diagram that resembles a phylogenetic tree but that can be used to test alternative hypotheses Unit 1 – Genetics Mendel‘s Principles: Law of Segregation Conclusions:  Each parent in his1generation starts with hereditary ―factors.‖ One factor is dominant and the other is recessive  The factor separate in the parent. Only one factor from each parent is contributed to the offspring  Each offspring inherits one fact is present it will be expressed even if the recessive factor is also present  The recessive factor will be expressed if only recessive factors are present Monohybrid Cross: 1:1 R R R RR RR R RR RR 1:1 r r r rr rr r rr rr 1:2:1 R R R Rr Rr r Rr Rr Incomplete-Dominant Cross: YY – Yellow Yy – Green yy – Blue Y y Y YY Yy y Yy yy Dihybrid Cross: P = RRYY x rryy F1 RY RY RY RY ry RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy ry RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy ry RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy ry RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy F1= RrYy x RrYy F2 RY Ry rY ry RY RYRY RRYy RrYY RrYy Ry RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy rY RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy ry RrYy Rryy RrYy rryy 9:3:3:1 Sex-Linked Inheritance Cross: H X = Negative for Hemophilia X = Positive for Hemophilia H h h P = X X x X Y F 1 X h Y X H X X h X Y X h X X h X Y Multiple Alleles and Blood Type: • The ABO blood groups in humans are examples of multiple alleles • Possible alleles are A, B, or O • Two of the human blood type alleles exhibit co-dominance (both alleles expressed) – Both alleles are expressed in the phenotype Cell Cycle: Interphase S Phase = DNA synthesis and replication G2 Phase = Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for cell division G1 Phase = Rapid growth and metabolic activity Cell Division and Mitosis Mitosis: Phase How to Recognize Events Diagram Prophase A phase of mitosis - chromatin condenses where the chromatin -chromosomes appears condenses and -nuclear membrane and chromosome appears nucleuos disappears -centriole migrate to opposite poles - spindle fibres form Metaphase A phase of mitosis in - spindle fibres attach to the which the centromere of the replicated chromosomes are chromosome aligned at the cell‘s - chromatids go to the centre of equator the cell - spindle fibres attached to chromatids Anaphase A phase of mitosis in - centromere splits apart which the centromere -chromatids pulled to opposite splits apart and the sides of cells chromatid are pulled to - spindle fibres shorten opposite poles of the cell by the spindle fibres Telophase A phase of mitosis - chromosomes now begin to where 2 daughter unwind and become less visible nuclei are formed - 2 daughter nuclei form Cytokinesis Separation of the - separation of cytoplasm cytoplasm and 2 new -daughter cells form daughter cells formed -spindle fibres disappear - nuclear membrane forms -nucleolus reappears -cell membrane forms Meiosis vs Mitosis: Mitosis Meiosis Occurs in Somatic Cells (Body) Sex Cells Number of cells produced per parent cell 2 4 Number of chromosomes in parent cell Diploid (2n) Diploid (2n) Number of chromosomes in daughter cells Same as Parent Haploid – 23 (n) Type of Cell Produced Identical cell to parent cell Gamete (sperm/egg) Function -to function better -transfer genetic information -to heal scarred tissue from generation to generation; (regenerate) increases variation - to replace old cells Meiosis: Is a special type of cell division that occurs only in reproductive organs. Meiosis produces reproductive cells called gametes. The gametes, either a sperm or egg are haploid which means they contain only one copy of each chromosome that the diploid parent cell‘s contains. So it can have ½ the chromosomes. Prophase I – Homologous chromosomes makes homologous pairs. The homologous pairs are made up of four chromatids and are called a tetrad. Each cells has one copy of each of you mother/father chromosome. During the pairing process, chromatids exchange genes. As a result, of crossing over individual chromosomes contains some genes from maternal/paternal origins
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