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BIOL101 Study Guide - Cecum, Gastric Glands, Adaptive Radiation


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL101
Professor
Bernard Glick

Page:
of 31
Biology Exam Review
Unit 1 Genetics Key Terms
Traits
distinguishing characteristics or phenotypic features of an individual
Inheritance
having certain physical trait that are transmitted from one generation to the next
Purebred
having descended from common ancestors of distinct type/breed, where all share
similar traits
P Generation
the designation for the parent generation
F1 Generation
offspring from the cross of the P generation, the first filial generation
F2 Generation
offspring from the cross of the F1 Generation, the second filial generation
Hybrid
an organism heterozygous for a trait
Monohybrid
a cross of two heterozygous individuals that differ in one trait (Aa x Aa)
Dihybrid
a cross of two individuals that differ in two traits (AabBb x AaBb)
Recessive
having an alleles that is latent (present but inactive) and is therefore not usually
expressed unless there is no dominant allele present
Mendelian Ratio
- ratio of dominant phenotype (homozygous dominant genotype and
heterozygous genotypes) to recessive phenotype (homozygous recessive genotype)
Gene
a part of the chromosome that governs the expression of a particular trait and can be
passed on to offspring
Allele
alternate form of a gene located at a particular place on the chromosome
Homozygous
having two alleles for a trait that are the same, as is the result in purebreeding; Can
either be dominant (AA) or recessive (aa).
Heterozygous
having two alleles for a trait that are different (Aa)
Genotype
genetic make-up of an organism (AA, Aa, aa)
Phenotype
the appearance of a trait in an organism (Brown Hair)
Carrier
an organism that is heterozygous for the given trait but does not show the recessive trait.
Test Cross
cross of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual,
used as a method to determine the unknown genotype
Law of Independent Assortment
Mendel‘s second law of inheritance, stating that the inheritance
of alleles doesn‘t that affect the inheritance of alleles for another trait
Law of Segregation
Mendel‘s law states where the hereditary traits are determined by pairs of
alleles from each parent. These alleles separate during gamete formation giving each offspring only
one allele from each parent
Co-Dominant
–the case where both alleles for a trait is dominant (Cat‘s spot, Flower)
Multiple Alleles
pattern of inheritance when a gene may have more than two alleles for any given
trait
Cell Cycle
a continuous sequence of cell growth and division
Centromere
the region where two sister chromatids are held together in a chromosome
Parent Cell
the original cell that divides to produces two new daughter cells through cell division
Daughter Cell
one of the two cells produced during mitosis of the parent cell
Cytokinesis
the separation of the cytoplasm and the formation of two new daughter cells (final
stage of mitosis)
Diploid
cells that contains two copies of every chromosome: somatic (body) cells (2n)
Haploid
cells that contain only half of the number of chromosomes: sex cells (gametes); sperm
and egg (n)
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that contains genetic material used to construct an
organism. It specifies protein synthesis in cells
Nucleotide
a molecule composed of a sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group (phosphoric
acid) and a nitrogen base
Complementary Base Pairs
pairs of nitrogen bases in DNA; adenine pairs with thymine (AT)
and guanine pairs with cytosine (GC)
Pedigree
diagram that illustrates the genetic relationships among a group of individuals
Autosomal Dominant
Disorders occur when disease-causing allele is dominant and an individual
has one or more copies of the allele (RR or Rr) like Huntington‘s Disease
Autosomal Recessive
Gene found on autosome (non-sex chromosome) and disease causing is
recessive and therefore an individual has to have both copies of the recessive (rr) such as Cystic
Fibrosis
Trisomy
having an extra chromosome usually produced when a gamete with an extra
chromosome is fertilized by a normal gamete
Non-Disjunction
failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis resulting in the
addition or deletion of one or more chromosomes in a gamete
Polyploidy
an organism that has more than two (2n) sets of chromosomes. It may have 3n, 4n, or
more
Gametes
reproductive cells either eggs or sperm, produced during meiosis
Karyotypes
illustration or photograph of the chromosome in the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell
in an organism
Unit 2 Evolution
Genetic Drift
random changes in allele frequencies in a population from generation to
generation. Chance plays a significant role, especially when the population is small
Bottle Neck Effect
change in gene distribution that result from a rapid decrease in population
size; ex. Colour vision deficiency on a small island called Pineglap in the Pacific Ocean
The Founder Effect
a change in the gene pool that occurs when a few individuals start a new
isolated. The diversity in the gene pool is limited because the founding individuals will have some
but not all the alleles and may not be typical of the population; ex. Amish population in
Philadelphia
Gene Flow
the net movement of alleles from one population to another due to the migration of
individuals
Mutation
an error in DNA sequence that can be caused by various mutagens such as toxic
compound, radiation, or viruses. As well, can cause favourable adaptations that will be passed onto
future generations (Evolution)
Speciation
is the formation of new species from existing species
Unit 3 Internal Systems
Breathing
act of ventilating a respiratory surface with air. Breathing usually accomplished through
muscular movements that can be divided into inspiration and expiration
Trachea
In vertebrates, the tube that carries air from the nasal passages or mouth to the lungs
(windpipe)
Pharynx
structure located just behind the mouth that connects the esophagus and trachea