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Exam note for Biol112

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 101
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All Professors
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Lecture 2: A Short History of Evolution  Evolution before Darwin: o Evolutionary biology essentially began in 1859 with the publication of “On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin o Previous to this time: A. Anaximander in Ancient Greece (6 century): believed that species were formed from water and that humans and other animals descended from fish B. Empedocles (5 century B.C); proposed that heads and limbs and other organs were joined at random and only some combinations were fit for survival C. Plato: developed concept of idealism;  All natural phenomena are imperfect representation of the true essence of an ideal unseen world D. Aristotle: Plato’s initial concept of eternal ideals was further elaborated by Aristotle, who envisioned a static world in which a Deity had created fixed essences, which are templates for all species o Gradation form inanimate to barely animate through plants and invertebrates up to higher forms in the Scale of Nature; moving from least perfect to most perfect o Christianity expanded on this: God’s creation must follow a plan ; the ladder of nature ; or Great Chain of Being o Permanent and unchanging since change would imply imperfection in the original creation  THIS was the prevailing belief in Darwin’s Time 5. Carolus Linnaeus ( Father of Taxonomy)  Established framework for modern classification ( the binomial system e.g Homo Sapiens) in the System of Nature in the hope of discovering the pattern of God’s creation 6. Jean Baptiste Lamarck (philosphie Zoologique):  Species change over time into new species  His idea’s concerning how this modification occurred differed considerably from Darwin’s ideas o Inheritance of acquired characteristics ; use and disuse  Evolution Before Darwin: 7. Erasmus Darwin: Darwin’s grandfather also proposed that species are modified descendants of earlier forms 8. Georges Curview: father of comparative anatomy. Paleontology and a proponent of catastrophism o The widely held belief that the Earth’s features had been primarily modeled by great catastrophes that resulted from forces that no longer operate today o In Europe, catastrophism arose a consequence of trying to reconcile geological history with the age of the Earth according to the bible 9. ArchBishop James Ussher, in 1654, declared the Earth was about 5650 years old and was created in 4004 BC 10. LightFoot: another biblical schlor, later declared that the Earth was created on oct th 26 , 4004 BC at 9 in the morning 11. James Hutton; Father of modern geology  Responsi
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