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Biol 110 Complete Final Exam Review Notes

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 110
David Barton

Architectural Pattern of an Animal MetazoamulticellularMetazoan cellspecialized part of the whole organism Eumetazoancelltissue grade Parenchymachief functional cells of an organ Stromasupportive cells of an organ Animal SymmetrySphericalany plane passing through divides a body into an equivalent or mirrored halvesRadial symmetrycan be divided into similar halves by more than two planes passing through the longitudinal axis typically diploblasts Biradial symmetryonly two planes passing through the longitudinal axis produce mirrored halves Bilateral symmetrycan be divided into left and right halves often cephalization differentiation of a headBody Cavities and Germ Layerssponges develop from a zygote to a blastula forms a blastocoel cavity cannot serve as a gut in other animals blastulagastrulaexternal opening blastopore which becomes a mouthanusfluidfilled blastocoel persists in diploblasts but is filled with mesoderm in triploblasts often bilaterally symmetrical 1 acoelomate planmesodermal cells completely fill the blastocoel gut is the only body cavity 2 pseudocoelomate planmesodermal cells line the outer edge of the blastocoel leaves a persistent blastocoel pseudocoelom and a gut cavity 3 schizocoelous planmesodermal cells fill the blastocoel forming a solid band of tissue around the gut space then opens inside the mesoderm and the new space is a coelom 4 enterocoelous plancells from the central portion of the gut lining begin to grow outward as pouches pouches pinch off from the gut completely enclosing a coelom bounded by mesoderm on all sides coelomic activities are bounded by mesoderm and lined with peritoneum membrane and mesenteries suspend organs in the coelom Triploblastsform a blastula from a zygote by spiral or radial cleavageRadial cleavageblastopore becomes an anus coelom forms via enterocoely Spiral cleavageblastopore becomes the mouth cleavage is mosaic and may become acoelomate pseudocoelomate or coelomateKingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti Kingdom Protista unicellular eukaryotic gametes produced by single cells Endoplasmgranular contains nucleus and organelles Ectoplasmtransparent bases of ciliaflagella more rigid LocomotoryFeeding Organelles Pseudopodia types Lobopodiablunt and fingerlike on amoebas both endo and ectodermReticulopodiabranching filaments create food trapsAxopodiaactinopodialong and sticky stiff microtubules retractableextendableFilopodiaslender simple branched network only ectoderm Flagellarespiration and circulation move in a whiplike manner 92 microtubule arrangement kinetosomes are not linked long many bendsCiliakinetodesma longitudinal oriented fibrils that line the surfaces of cells and beat in a rhythmic wave short one bend at a timeReproduction in Protista Asexualfission mitosissimple longitudinal transverse or schizogeny Sexualmeiosiszygote into new individualPhylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Mastigophora flagella mostly parasitic but some freeliving Class Zoomastigophora Order Protomonadina small colorless cells with 14 flagella Genus Leptomonasgut of an arthropodCrithidiagut of other invertebrates ovoid cell membraneLeishmaniasurficial connective tissue of vertebrates short internal flagella avoid vector isusually a sandfly causes kalaazar a skin disease Trypanosomablood of vertebrates undulating membraneT rhodesiense and T gambiense cause sleeping sickness transmitted by TseTse flyTcruzi causes Chagas disease reduviid bug as vectorSubphylym Sarcodina amobas lack a rigid structure can freely change shape have pseudopodia free living in freshwater and marine environments
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