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Biology Review.docx

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BIOL 130
Dragana Miskovic

Biology Review Notes Chapter 1: Cells – small membrane enclosed units filled with a concentrated aqueous solution of chemicals and endowed with the ability to create copies of themselves by growing and dividing in two DNA – long polymer chains made of four monomers called nucleotides strung together to form the building blocks of life RNA – chemically related to set of polymers to DNA, and are used for translating and transcribing DNA through messenger RNA Evolution – the process by which a living species becomes gradually modified and adapted to their environment in sophisticated ways Genome – The entire library of genetic information in its DNA Cytoplasm – Contents of a cell contained in its plasma membrane and in eukaryotic cells, outside the nucleus Eukaryotes – Living organism composed of one or more cells with a distinct nucleus and cytoplasm, all forms of life, except archaea, bacteria and viruses Prokaryotes – Comprised of archaea, and bacteria, and these cells lack a nucleus Nucleus – Contains DNA organized into chromosomes Chromosomes – long thread like structure composed of DNA and asoociated proteins that carries genetic information of an organism Chloroplasts - organelle in algae and plants that contains chloroplasts and in which photosynthesis occurs Cytosol – Contents of the cytoplasm, does not include membrane enclosed organelles such as mitochondria or ER Ribosomes – Particle composed of ribosomal RNA’s and proteins that associates with mRNA and catalyzes the synthesis of protein Protozoans – Free living, non-photosynthetic single celled eukaryotic organisms Model Organism – Organism Selected for intensive study as a representative for other species Homologous – Similar organs or molecules Biology Review Notes Chapter 2 An atom has a dense positively charged nucleus with a negatively charged electrons around it held in orbit by electrostatic attraction Protons – Positively charged Neutrons – Electrically neutral Atomic Weight/Molecular weight – Mass relative of a molecule to a hydrogen atom One gram of hydrogen contains 6 x 10 atoms, and one proton or neutron weighs about 1/6 x 10 , this number is Avogadro’s number Chemical Bonds – are what hold multiple atoms to each other, binding them, and the two are ionic bonds, and covalent bonds Ionic bond – When an atom donates an electron to another, in order to bond with it Ions – When an atom gains or loses an electron, it becomes an ion, positive charge = cation, negative charge = anion Electrostatic Attraction – An attractive force that happens between two oppositely charged atoms Molecule – A bunch of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds Covalent Bond – When the electrons are being shared instead of taken or given Polar – When the positive charge of an atom is on one side of the molecule and the negative charge is on the other Hydrogen Bonds – When the positive side of a water molecule is attracted to the negative side of another water molecule, it creates this very weak bond Hydrophilic – Molecules that are ‘water loving’ and mix well with water Hydrophobic – Molecules that are ‘water fearing’ and do not mix well with water Hydronium Ion – When a water molecule gains an additional electron + Acids – A substance that will release a proton when dissolved in water, producing H O 3 pH Scale – A logarithmic scale that shows how acidic or basic a solution is, the less the number, the more hydrogen atoms, making it acidic and vice-versa - Base – A molecule that will accept an electron, creating an OH molecule Buffers – Weak acids or bases that will release or take protons near pH 7 keeping the environment constant under various conditions Chemical Groups – A combination of atoms that repeatedly appear in organic molecules, these include: methyl (-CH )3 hydroxyl (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), carbonyl (-C=O), phosphoryl (-PO ) 3nd amino (-NO ) 2 Biology Review Notes Sugars – A compound with the general formula (CH O) 2ndnare considered monosaccharides, and when molecules are made from this
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