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Biology 130 Study notes These are notes I took while studying.

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BIOL 130
Bryce Pickard

Module 1 introduction to cell biologyWho coined the term cellWhat was his name and professionWho was one of the first human to see a variety of cells And what was hisprofessionWhat does development of cell biology depend onWho were the three people that summarised the cell theoryWhat are the three strands that make up cell biologyWhat are the Basic properties of cellsExceptions to the cell theory Viruses are bits of nucleic acids with a protein coat inert outside cells Virodsr circular RNA without protein coat r parasites of viruses Prions contain no nucleic acid have capacity for selfassembly and self duplicationFor every cell in the world there is a unique virus can infect itThe two different classes of cells areProkaryotes before nucleus usually single celled DNA lies freely in the nucleus not usually associated with proteins and eukaryotes true nucleus has organelles is both single celled and multicellular DNA associated with proteins called histonesMost human cells are only visible with the light microscopeEukaryotes have but prokaryotes dont have Organelles egmitochondria lysosomes microbody Has a network of internal membrane ER rough ER and smooth ER Cytoskeleton is a network of tubes running through the cytoplasm of the cell eg microtubules microfilaments intermediate filaments Have complex cilia and flagella Have the capacity for Endocytosis and PhagocytosisPhagocytosis is the drawing in of particles by engulfment could be bacteria etcEndocytosis is the drawing in of macromolecules specific macromoleculesCommon features of cell Plasma membrane Genetic blue print Similar mechanisms for transcription and translation including similar ribosomes Shared metabolic pathway glycolysis krebs cycle Similar energy currency ATP Similar mechanism for synthesising and inserting membrane proteins Protein digesting structures called proteosomesThe six kingdoms Prokaryotes Archaebacteria Archae live in extreme environments and have cell walls EubacteriamoneraBacteria all have cell walls except Mycoplasma Mycoplasma r the smallest cells fewest number of genes and Eukaryotes Protista complex single celled organisms Fungi include both multicellular and single celled organisms depend on an external source of organic compounds Plantae always multicellular have cell walls Animalia always multicellular and heterotrophicHeterotrophs depend on an external organic compound source Plant cells have but animal cells dont have Plastids organelles bound by two membrane Cellwalls of cellulose and lignin Have vacuolesChemical basis of lifeChemical bonds hold 2 or more atoms togetherCovalent bonds are the strong bonds in biological systemsElectronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electronsFree radicals r atoms or molecules containing a single unpaired electron that can exist independentlythese exist for very short periods of timeROS reactive oxygen species r free radicalsFree radicals produced in small amounts can be used in the cell as signalling moleculesBiologically important weak bonds are Ionic bonds Is an electrostatic attraction between fully charged components The DNA and the histones interact through ionic bonds Hydrogen bonds is the bond between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to another electronegative atomHydrophobic interactionbond is the tendency of nonpolar groups to aggregate in the presence of water Cell membrane is stabilised by hydrophobic bondsOrganic molecules are carbon containing molecules Eg hydrocarbonsCommon linkage between functional groupformed betweena carboxyl group and an alcohol group also amide bonds formed between carboxylic acid and aminesFour main macromolecules rlipids proteins carbohydrates and nucleic acidLipids do not have a monomer because it is not a polymerChloroform methanol mixed in a 21 ratio is a good solvent for extracting lipidsRoles of lipids Source of energy and a longterm energy deposit Some hormones Prostaglandins are a special type of hormone Vitaminseg adekFatty acids are unbranched hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group at one end they are amphipathic because they have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions In water they form micellesthe hydrophilic end on the outside and the hydrophobic end on the insideThere are two types saturatedonly single bonds and unsaturatedone or more double bondsLinoleic acid is an essential acid in human cellsunsaturatedLinoleneic acid is essential in fishunsaturatedButyric acidsaturated the double bond gives the unsaturated fatty acids a kink in their structurestriglycerides are made of three fatty acids major storage compound in both plants and animals the fatty acids can either be the same or different triglyceride can either be identical or differentdiff fatty acidsPhospholipids this occurs when one of the fatty acids of a triglyceride is replaced by a phosphate group the parent compound is phosphotidic acid the glycerol r esterified to the fatty acid while the phosphate group is covalently bonded to the OH group of the glycerol Some viruses have a lipid bilayerpolar groups can be linked to the phosphate group glycol lipids r usually considered as lipidscholesterol steroids 3 big sources r the adrenal gland testes and ovariesGlucocorticoids stress hormones Cortisomecortisol are antiinflammatory CarbohydratesHave the general formula CHO 2n Has a common repeating unit monosaccharide Monosaccharide is an energy sourcehas a carbon chain containing one aldehyde or a ketoneOH at the other the aldehyde carbon is numbered 1Usually 37 carbon atoms Hexoseglucose and fructose Pentose ribose deoxyriboseStereo isomers have same bonding sequence but different arrangement in spaceOnly a very small amount of monosaccharides r found in the open chain formWhen the monosaccharide is in the ring form it forms two isomersAlpha glucose it the hydroxyl group of the carbon 1 is below and beta glucose if the hydroxyl group of the carbon 1 is above Abelow BaboveWhen 2 monosaccharide r linked together thru the glycosidic bond a disaccacharide is formed Lactose B1 4 glycosidic bond SucroseA1 2 Maltose A1 4CellobioseB1 4 Structural polysaccharidesCellulose made of beta glucoses linked by a B14linkagewe cant hydrolyse itChitin u branched polymer or n acetyl glucose amine The covering for insectsGlucose amino Glycans GAGS made of repeating disaccharides usually one is an amine sugar proteo Glycans are organisation of GAGSNucleic acidsR the informational molecules of cells and virusesNucleotides r the building blocksThe nucleotide consists of the phosphate group pentose sugar and nitrogen baseTwo types of nitrogenous bases Pyrimidine bases have one heterocyclic ring cytosine found in both DNA and RNA Uracil RNA thymine DNA Purines bases two heterocyclic rings adenine and guanineRibose has an OH in its carbon 2 while deoxyribose doesnt haveNucleosides a purine or Pyrimidine attached to a pentose sugarNucleotides nucleosidephosphoric acidEg adenosine monophosphate cyclic ADPriboseNucleotides r involved in 3 basic functions They are the monomeric units on which DNA and RNA are made
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