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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 130
Professor
Niels C Bols
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1History Of Cell TheoryRobert Hooke1665Leuwenhoek16731700Schleiden18381839Schwann18381839Rudolf Virchow1858microscopeinstrument provides magnified image of a tiny object Robert Hooke observed cork under mic and it looked like honeycomb pores cells Anton Van Leeuwenhock observed pond wateranimalcules bacteriaTheodor Schwanncells of plants and animals Cell theoryCell Doctrine1all organisms are composed of one or more cells2cell is the basic organizational unit of life 3all arise by division from a preexisting cell rudolf virchowRudolf Virchowrd3 part to cell theoryBasic Properties of Cellscells are complex and substructure is highly organized and predictable info to build cellgenesactivity fueled by chemical energycarry enzymes that control chemical r eactionsengage numerous mechanical activitiesrespond to stimuli self regulation in vitroin culture outside of bodycells have particular shape and locationorganellesconsistent composition of marcomoleculesgenesblue prints molecular structure allows changes of info mutationcells reproduce by divisionmother celldaughter cell all chemical changes require enzymesmoleculesrate of chemical reactionmetabolismsum total of chemical reactions in a cellcells are covered in receptorsinteract with substances and environmenthormones growth factors extracellular materials substances on the surfaces of other cellsreceptors provide pathways with external agents evoke responsesBasic Properties of Cells1Cells are highly complex and organized but all are enclosed by a physical barrier cell membrane2Blue printDNA genetic program3Cells acquire and utilize energy4Cells carry out a variety of chemical reactions5Cells are capable of producing more of themselves6Cells engage in numerous mechanical activities7Cells are able to respond to stimuli8Cells are capable of selfregulation2 Fundamentally different classes of cellsProkaryotes before nucleus Karp p 7 Fig 18 p 9 Table 11 Always single cell organisms Prokaryotes 110 m recently rare exceptions have been found to be larger DNA lies free in cell or sometimes in an area called nucleoid region DNA is associated with fewer proteins and so is sometimes called nakedEukaryotes true nucleus Karp p 9 Table 11 p 10 Fig 110 All cells of multicellular organisms are eukaryotes Eukaryotes 10100 m exception Caulerpalargest singlecell organism DNA is organized into a nucleusNucleus is an organelleDNA is associated with a characteristic set of proteins distinguished by size and organellesinternal structuresProkaryotes BothEukaryotesNucleoidpoor demarcated Contain 1 OrganellesSome examplesregion cell lacks boundary nuclear membrane to separate from regionMitochondriaproduce surronding cytoplasmenergy in form of ATPribosomno nucleusesLysosomesmembrane boundsacs containing digestive no membrane bound organellescell wallenzymesDNA Bacteria cytoplasMicrobody peroxisomesDivided to 2 major taxonomic DNAoxidation of fatty acids and groups domainsdetoxification ofArchaea archaebacteriacertain toxic compounds hydrogen more closely to eukaryotesperoxidelive in extreme environments2 Network of internal membranesBacteria eubacteriaEndoplasmic reticulum ercyanobacteria contain arrayrough erribosomes are of cytoplasmic membrane bound to the membrane photosynthesisnetworkcapable of nitrogensmooth erstores calciumfixation conversion of nitrogen N2 to reduced 3 Cytoskeletonforms ammonia NH3 microtubulespipelike survive with littlecylinders about 2025 nm in light N2 Co2 diameterH2o microfilamentscylinders some capable of conjucationabout 5 nm in diameterlive in complex multispecies intermediate filamentscommunitesbiofilms eg cylinders or fibers 10 nm in Plaquediameter4 Complex cilia and flagella5 Capacity for endocytosis and phagocytosisMicrobiome collection of microbes inhabitates our mouths vagina skin intentinesMost complex eukaryotic cells are found singlecelled protists eg Vorticella complex ciliatedcomplex machinery in 1 cell food evade sensing env excess fluidsSpecialized cells formed by differentiation eg fertilized eggdifferent cells acquire distinctive appearance and unique materialsmuscle cells red blood cells nerve cells fat bone tissue connective tissuemodel organismssmall representatives for research activities Exceptions to the cell theory Crossroads between living and non living matter viruses Karp Figs 120 121 1221 Viruses are bits of nucleic acids that have a protein coat2 Inert outside the cells3 Reproduce only in cells viroidscircular RNA without protein coat
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