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U9- Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis SUMMARY.docx

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BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

U9: CELL CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS, MEIOSIS Mitosis vs Meiosis:  Mitosis: division of genetic material that produces daughter cells genetically identical to parent cell; accompanied by cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm into 2 daughter cells)  Meisosis: division of genetic material to produce daughter cells with half the hereditary material found in the parent cell; produces gametes (eggs and sperm); basis of sexual reproduction Eukaryotic chromosomes and DNA packaging:  Eukaryotic chromosomes: multiple linear chromosomes housed in nucleus; 2 copies of each essential to survival; complex packing of DNA  DNA packaging: DNA double helix wrapped around histone proteins; tightly packed DNA with histones; chromosomes condense to prepare for mitosis/meisosis One chromosome has 2 sister chromatids Phases of the cell cycle 1) Interphase: G ,1S, G 2 2 unreplicated chromosomes (parent cell); 2 replicated chromosomes, 2 times the DNA content; chromatids separate; 2 daughter cells are formed by cytokinesis o Cell grows, produces proteins and organelles, copies its DNA, prepares for cell division o Subdivisions of Interphase: a) G 1Gap 1): most of cells growth b) S (Synthesis): DNA is copied c) G 2Gap 2): cell completes preparations for mitosis 2) M-phase (mitosis): pro, prometa, meta, ana, telo: chromosomes are highly condensed o Mitosis and cytokinesis 3) Cytokinesis, animals vs plants: involves ring of actin filaments just under plasma membrane; associated with motor proteins (myosin) o Plants: Vesicles fuse forming a new cell wall (uses cellulose fibers to complete wall) Control of the cell cycle: Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) is a heterodimeric protein that induces mitosis Cyclins, Cdks: o Cdk: transfers phosphate from ATP; not active unless bound to cyclin partner; constant levels o Cyclins: regulatory subunit; levels change thru cell cycle Variants of the cell cycle,0G : Checkpoints:  G1/S (restriction point): checks if DNA is undamaged, if size of cell is big enough to split; nutrition; checkes external signal molecules  G2/M checkpoint: checks for internal issues, did DNA replicate properly, is DNA undamaged, is activated MPF pres
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