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Midterm #2 Review Sheet.docx
Midterm #2 Review Sheet.docx

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

BIO 130- MIDTERM #2 REVIEW SHEET: GLYCOLYSIS: - A 9 step process that breaks down glucose (6 carbons) to pyruvate (3 carbons) - The reaction is NOT spontanoues --> needs 2 ATPs to be broken down to drive rxn -During the breakdown of glucose, 4ATPs are made --> a net gain of 2ATP for the whole process -Also makes 2NADH (key for making more ATP in the ETC) AFTER GLYCOLYSIS, THE CELL CAN EITHER GO TO THE KREBS CYCLE OR FERMENTATION (Anaerobic respiration): - there are 2 main stages: 1) Phosphorylation of glucose (Glucose Breakdown): 9 rxns that convert glucose into pyruvate (GAP is the only molecule that continues in the glycolytic pathway --> GAP continues glycolysis) 2) Pyruvate conversion: The rxns that convert 2 GAPs (3 carbons) into pyruvate -2ATP used, 4ATP made --> net gain of 2ATPs -Starting point= glucose --> final product= pyruvate -along the cristate are important proteins needed for the proton pump and ATP production - glucose is converted into pyruvate in glycolysis -pyruvate is then converted into acetyl CoA before entering the Krebs cycle - pyruvate oxidation: 1) Decarboxylation: 1 carbon + 2 oxygens (1CO2) is removed from pyruvate 2) Oxidation: NAD+ enters the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex and is oxidized into NADH (NADH then enters the mitochondria) 3) Attachement: A CoA group attaches to the 2 carbons (acyl group) and becomes acetly CoA (and enters the mitochondria) - 1 ATP is generated for each proton pair flowing thru ATP synthase (NADH--> pumps 3 pairs of H+ --> generates 3 ATPs and FADH2 --> pumps 2 pairs of H+ --> generates 2 ATPs) -acetyl CoA then enters the Krebs cycle and combines with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid (6 carbon molecule) - the citric acid undergoes 10 chemical conversions (via several enzymes) - in many of the steps, NAD gets reduced and gets a H+ ion to become NADH - FADH gains 2 H+ and becomes FADH2 (becomes the final electron acceptor) - there is enough energy to make 1 ATP per pyruvate, therefore a net of 2 ATP are made (due to 2 molecules of pyruvate) -for each acetyl CoA entering the Krebs cycle, 2CO2 are formed, since 2 acetyl CoA's enter the cycle, 4CO2's are formed, thus a net of 6CO2 are made (including the CO2 formed from the conversion of pyruvate to acetly CoA) - FINAL PRODUCTS OF THE KREBS CYCLE (per 2 molecules of pyruvate): 2ATP+ 2FADH2 + 10NADH - the FADH2 and NADH will be used in the ETC WHAT REACTIONS OCCUR IN THE KREBS CYCLE: 1) The rxn between acetly CoA and oxaloacetate to form citric acid (6C) 2) 2 carbons from the citric acid leave as CO2 to yield oxaloacetate (used again in the first step of the next cycle) 3) During the 8 rxns that take place, for every molecule of acetyl CoA, 3NADH and 1FADH2/FADH and 1ATP is produced UNCLEAR CONCEPTS: -Pyruvate oxidation -Oxidative phosphorylation -fermentation + lactate (anerobic respiration) -oxidative pathway -beta-oxidation -how much in detail do we need to know glycolysis, krebs, etc. KEY CONCEPTS OF U4- BIOENERGETICS: Cellular Respiration – Obtaining energy from food Catabolism/Anabolism Activated carrier molecules (ATP/NADH/FADH2) Harvesting small energy ‘packets’ in multiple steps – Why? Three Ways to make ATP Breakdown of food and the four steps of cellular respiration Redox reactions – oxidation/reduction, harvesting high energy electrons into carrier molecules Glycolysis - reactions and efficiency, products Mitochondrial structure, import of pyruvate, Coenzyme A, pyruvate dehydrogenase TCA cycle – reactions, products and regulation Food molecules other than glucose - fats, proteins, other carbohydrates Electron Transport Chain- components, location ATP synthase - generation of ATP, Chemiosmotic Theory, proton pumps, pH gradients, membrane potential Anaerobic Respiration – fermentation to lactate and ethanol Efficiency of Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration - POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT AEROBIC RESPIRATION VS FERMENTATION: 1) How are they similar? 2) How are they different? 3) What are the relative energy yields? ****** SLIDE 46 AND 47 --> SUMMARY OF GLYCOLYSIS AND KREBS CYCLE KEY CONCEPTS OF U4c- ENERGY GENERATION IN CHLOROPLASTS: Energy generation (ATP synthesis) using sunlight Chloroplast structure – comparison to mitochondrion structure Light reactions of photosynthesis Thylakoid membrane in comparison to the inner mitochondrial membrane Reactions of photosystem I and photosystem II – cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation U5a- GENE EXPRESSION --> DNA TO RNA Central dogma --> Recap of RNA structure, types of RNA Transcription --> template versus coding strand Prokaryotes: bacterial RNApol initiation, termination – start and stop sequences sigma factor, promoters Eukaryotes – contrasts with prokaryotes DNA packaging general transcription factors – TATA box, TBP, TFIID RNA polymerases (RNApol I, II, III) 7-methylguanosine caps and polyadenylate tails exons, introns, spliceosomes, snRNPs nuclear export U5b- GENE EXPRESSION --> RNA TO PROTEIN: genetic code codons, reading frame translation tRNA as an adapter molecule aminoacyl tRNA synthetase tRNA structure – 1˚, 2˚, 3˚ anticodons, wobble hypothesis mechanism of translation A, P and E sites of ribosomes initiation elongation termination polyribosomes protein folding post-translational modifications of proteins U6- BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES: membrane structure membrane lipids (ref: Unit 2 Cell Chemistry, slides 111-129) membrane proteins functions, peripheral vs integral – transmembrane helices, pores membrane transport What drives movement of solutes? diffusion, osmosis, tonicity, turgor pressure What determines what can cross a membrane? size, polarity, charge
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