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Biol 130 Exam Review.docx

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Heidi Engelhardt

Biol 130 Exam Review Unit 1: Introduction to the Cell The Cell Theory: History Robert Hooke  Created first microscope  Viewed cell walls  Light microscopy Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek  Worked with glass  First to observe o Single cell organisms (protists, bacteria, blood cells, muscle cells, sperm)  Compound Microscope o Improved magnification and resolution o Animal cells 20 micrometers, Organelles 2micrometeres The Cell Theory: Beginnings Robert Brown – Plant cells have a ‘kernel’ – nucleus Matthias Schleiden – All cells come from previous cells Shwann – Structural similarities between plants and animals. Formulated cell theory Cell Theory 1. All organisms consist of one or more cells 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms 3. All cells arise only from pre existing cells Microscopy Light Microscopy  Unstained or Stained o Bright Field/ Phase Contrast/ DIC Fluorescence Microscopy  Viewing Cytoskeleton Electron Microscopy  Scanning EM “Whats it like”  Transmission EM “Whats inside” Basic Properties of Cells  Have many processes that are highly conserved at the molecular level  Engage in many mechanical activities o Transporting materials o Assembly of structures o Movement Two Classes of Cells Prokaryote – no nucleous Eukaryote – true nucleus Biol 130 Exam Review Hughes 2 Prokaryotic Cell  No membrane bound nucleus  Naked DNA. Single, circular strand  Cell wall in addition to plasma membrane (except mycoplasma)  Spherical cells, rod shaped cells, spiral cells  No need for cytoskeletal transport systems Four Groups of Eukaryotes Protists – very diverse groups, mostly single celled Fungi – single cells, and multi cellular, cell walls, heterotrophs. (Cant make own food) Plants – multicellular, cell walls Animals – multicellular, no cell walls, heterotrophs Compartmentalization in Eukaryotic Cells Cytoplasm – everything between plasma membrane and nuclear membrane Cytosol – only fluid component Endomembrane System – internal membranes that are either in direct contact or connected via transfer vesicles Nucleus – stores genetic information Mitochondria – generate energy to power the cell Chloroplasts –capture energy from sunlight, convert to carbohydrate Cytoskeleton Rough ER – protein synthesis (ribosomes) Smooth ER – no protein synthesis Lysosomes –digest macromolecules, worn out organelles, brought in material Cytoskeleton – cell shape, cell movement Endosymbiont Theory  Once believed that eukaryotes evolved gradually  Mitochondria and Chloroplasts evolved from smaller prokaryotes engulfed by larger cell  Gives the host cell aerobic respiration/photosynthesis  Bacteria is protected by environment Model Organisms Biol 130 Exam Review Hughes 3 Unit 2a: Intro to Cellular Chemistry What are cells made of?  Four types of atoms make up 96% of all matter found in living organisms, CHON  Mostly comvined in complex macromolecules  Also present in simple forms CO2, H2O etc. Water  Water is the most abundant molecule in biological organisms  Human body is 70% water  Can dissolved more types of molecules than other molecule known The pH scale  [H+]  Ranges from 1 (1x10^-1 to 14(1x10^-14)  Ph>7 = Basic, ph<7= Acidic pK aalues The measure of proton binding affinity, helps distinguish between weak and strong acids. Low pk=strong, High = weak.  pH = pK species is 50% ionized  pH>pKa eqiolibrium lies to the right  pH loss of function  May affect other cells  Cell Death Levinthal Paradox For a small 100aa protein, it would take longer than the age of the universe to correctly sample every conformation it could attain to find the right one. .’. The folding pathway is not random Unit 2b: Biomolecules – Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids: Information Polymers Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) (directs RNA synthesis)  A, G, C, T  dAMP, dGTP, dNTP Ribonucleic Acid (directs ordering of AA)  A, G, C, U  AMP, GTP, rNTP Nucleotides Monomers of NA Each Nucleotide consist of three parts  Nitrogenous base (A G C U T)  Pentose Sugar (5 carbon)  Phosphate group Pyrimidine’s (single ring)  C T U Purine (Double Ring)  G A Biol 130 Exam Review Hughes 5 Functions of Nucleotides  Cell signaling – cAMP  Energy transfer reactions (ATP)  Co enzymes (NAD, FAD) Phosphate-Sugar Backbone)  Built in 5’ ->3’ Direction Secondary Structure of DNA  Two antiparallel strands of DNA  Hbonds between pyrimidine and purine  Double helix  Charged phosphate backbone  Packaged around histones which make chromosomes Secondary Structure of RNA  Some complementary base pairing  Can have catalytic activity  mRNA – messenger (code for protein)  rRNA – form the core of the ribosome and catalyze protein synthesis  tRNA – serve as adaptors between mRNA and amino acids during protein synthesis  Some do RNA splicing, maintenance etc. Unit 2b: Biomolecules – Carbohydrates and Lipids Carbohydrates Carbon-hydrates CHO in 1:2:1 ratio Three types of Carbohydrates  Monosaccharide’s ( simple sugars) (monomer/dimer)  Oligosaccharides (trimer)– small chains attached to: o Proteins – glycoproteins o Lipids – glycolipids  Polysaccharides – very long sugar chains Structural Features of Sugar Monomers  Carbonyl Group – keytone or aldehyde  Lots of –OH  Vary in length of carbon skeleton  Isometric forms o Same atoms, different arrangements o Stereo – Different orientations o Structural – different sequence o 16 Different hexose structures possible o Hydroxyl groups make a big difference in biological function Formation of Ring Structures Carbonyl group converted to hydroxyl. Oxygen from C5 bonds to C1 Biol 130 Exam Review Hughes 6 OH group determines type, a-glucose is when it is below, B glucos
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