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Final Exam Review 11 pages of notes including results from each experiment, expected results, an overview of the procedure and theory as well as charts, diagrams and pictures

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Dragana Miskovic

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Biology Lab Exam NotesExperiment 1Identification of MacromoleculesIodine Testiodine test turns blueblack in the presence of starch and reddish brown in the presence of glycogenstarch and glycogen only differ in their overall shape and degree of branching starch is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin its the reaction of amylose and iodine that gives the blue colourthe reaction of iodine and the highly branched components of glycogen gives it a reddish brown colourBenedicts Testaldehyde group that reacts with Benedicts solution to indicate the presence of a reducing sugara positive test ranges from yellow green red or brownBenedicts solution contains blue cupric ions Cu dissolved in NaOH the aldehyde groups will reduce it to cuprous ions Cu and combine with oxygen to form a precipitate of Cu2O4 Cu2OH 2e2Cu2O2H2ethe amount of cuprous oxide formed is proportional to the concentration of free aldehyde groups in the solutiona ketose sugar can also reduce Benedicts but is not oxidized directly the test catalyzes isomerization into an isomer ofa 2ketose by the way of an enediol intermediate into an aldosea false positive could result from other molecules being oxidizedBiuret Testtreatment of peptide bonds with Cu ions and alkali base give aviolet Cu peptide complexin this experiment NaOH is the alkali and CuSO4 gives the Cu ionsSolution TestedBenedicts Test Biuret Test for Iodine Test for for Reducing ProteinsGlycogen and SugarsStarch1 glucose03 glucose1phosphate1 maltoseHoney1 sucrose1 lactose1 glycogen1 starchProteinBeerDistilled water
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