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BIOL150 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Whirligig Beetle, Algal Bloom, Ecosystem Ecology

Course Code
Rebecca Rooney
Study Guide

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Intro to science
Introduction to science
– The scientific method -
– Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
- Inductive reasoning is drawing general conclusion from specific observations
- Deductive reasoning is drawing specific predictions from general premises
– Falsify hypotheses
– Basic vs. applied research
- Basic - research out of curiosity
- Applied - trying to solve a specific problem
– Data types and importance
Non numerical data (Categorical/ Qualitative)
Nomical eg Blonde, Brunette
Ordinal - has order (S M L)
Numeric (Quantitative)
Discrete (integers only) - # of seeds per flower
Continuous (measurements) - location, biomass, water depth
– Vaccination and autism example of the need for scientific literacy and the characteristics of a
good scientific study - Vaccine was created and some people started seeing autism in their kids
after the shot. So people startd publishing in news papers that the vaccine caused autism in
kids and people believed them without any scientific evidence. People stopped taking the
vaccine and cases of measles elevated. It was later revealed that there was no link btw autism
and the vaccine.
Intro to Ecology
Define ecology - the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their
Resources (consumed), conditions (not consumed), and hazards (negative)
Different levels of ecology
Organismal ecology (Whirligig beetle adaptations)
the beetles carry an air bubble on their abdomen and dive when they see
predators. Wings for migration.

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Population ecology (conservation of birds)
birds have been reducing and this is used to study why.
Community ecology (effects of invasive species)
plants - shading, pH changes, crowding, dense litter, cooler soils
Ecosystem ecology (the causes of eutrophication)
eutrophication - excess nutrients in a body of water causing an algae bloom
they put a dam in a body of water with carbon and nitrogen then carbon and
nitrogen and phosphorus in the other. The one with phosphorus had an algae
Sub-organismal processes are still important
Global patterns in
Temperature - the closer to the sun you are, the hotter the climate
the earth is spherical
Precipitation and relative humidity - related to temp.
Polar cell, Ferrel cells, Hadley cell
the earth is tilted on its axis
High and low pressure
Prevailing winds
What causes these patterns?
Climate change and biodiversity
Microclimates –rain shadows, lake effects, etc.
Rain shadows - A mountain close to bodies of water block moisture from moving to
the other side of the mountain so it doesn’t rain there.
Lake effect - frost, winter lows, summer highs, increased precipitation, snow belts
• Aspect
Vegetation - create shade, litter, moister and cooler.
Biogeography - the study of how organisms are distributed geographically.

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What were the biomes we visited?
Arctic tundra
Desserts - fertilize the amazon
Boreal Forest
The tropics
• Swamps
hunting dogs
What were the adaptations of the animals we met that helped them in those environments?
Penguins - huddle for warmth
Polar Bears
Caribou 3 mill
• Wolves
Amur Leopards - thick fur, scavange
Seal - swims in sharp bends bc shark is faster
• Shark
• Buffalo
• Elephants
hunting dogs - team work, stamina
Impala - speed
What patterns did you see with latitude?
Trees start to grow
Leaves get broader
• Warmer
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