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Study Guide

BIOL 150- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 12 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL150
Professor
Rebecca Rooney
Study Guide
Midterm

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UW
BIOL 150
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIOL 150 ECOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2
Introduction to Ecology
Ecology science that studies organisms interacting with their environment
Environmentalism activism focused on protecting the natural environment, particularly from
the impacts of human activities
Environment osists of all the exteral fators that ifluee a orgais’s surial, groth
and or reproduction
Ecosystem the biotic community and its abiotic environment
All environmental factors fall into these categories:
Resources consumed by an organism
Conditions only influence an organism but not consumed
Hazards includes factors that can only affect an organism negatively if they are present
Organisms can compete for resources but not conditions. Conditions can indirectly affect
competition by altering availability of a resource
Ecological Hierarchy:
Individual
Population group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at a given time
Community all populations of all species living and interacting within an eco-system
Levels above the community include abiotic components
Ecosystem
Landscape area of land composed of a patchwork of ecosystem
Biome broad-scale regions in which the landscape is dominated by similar ecosystems
Biosphere the arro iterfae at Earth’s surfae that otais ad supports life
- Atmosphere layers of air surrounding the earth (Co2, O2, N2)
- Hydrosphere ater at or ear Earth’s surfae, iludig the soil solutio (H20,
dissolved nutrients, light, habitat space)
- Lithosphere solid earth and soil (minerals, nutrients)
Scale the level of resolution in time and or space over which a pattern or process is
investigated
Autecology both structural and physiological ecology
Behavioural Ecology explore factors affecting species distribution
Population Ecology focuses to population size and how it changes over time
Evolutionary Ecology- the study of changes in population genetics in response to evolutionary
processes, particularly natural selection
Community Ecology studies community patterns and the processes that contribute to them
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Ecosystem Ecology studies ecosystem structure and function, stressing the flow of energy and
nutrients through its abiotic and biotic components
Landscape Ecology investigates the factors influencing the spatial extent and arrangement of
interacting ecosystems and the impacts of these patterns on such processes as dispersal of
organisms, exchange of energy and nutrients, and spread of disturbances, such as fire or
disease
Global Ecology studies how the exchange of energy and matter between ecosystems and the
atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere influences global conditions
Ecology as a Science Scientific Method
1. Observation must be replicable able to be repeated at different times by different
observers
- Often prolonged and complex until it reaches an ecological pattern (repeated
consistency)
2. Question (Hypothesis Generation)
- Hypothesis a proposed explanation of what the answer may be
3. Hypothesis Testing
- Classifying Ecological Data :
o Statistical Population set of entities about which inferences are drawn
o Sample portion of a statistical population that is actually observed
- Types of Data:
o Categorical Data observations of qualitative variables that fall into distinct, non
numerical groupings
Nominal categories are unordered
Ordinal order is important
Binary one or the other (only 2 choices)
o Numerical Data observation of quantitative variables
Discrete only integer values are possible
Continuous any value in an interval is possible
- Confounding Factor factor that varies with another factor and whose effects can be
confused with it
4. Experimentation a test conducted under controlled conditions to determine the
validity of a hypothesis
- Field Experiment
- Laboratory Experiment have more control over abiotic factors
5. Reiteration repeating experiments
6. Theory Generation an integrated set of hypotheses that attempts to explain a broader
set of observed phenomena than does any single hypotheses may emerge
- Natural Experiments monitor response to a disturbance or other event
Models - abstract, simplified representations of real systems that allow scientists to predict a
response
Null Models assume that patterns are generated by random forces in the absence of a
particular ecological process
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