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BIOL 150
Kirsten Muller

Bio 250 Notes Aaron TaiLecture 1Sciencesearch for information and explanation of natural phenomena method of examination o Mythsdoes not lead to truth cannot prove can be done without experiments phylogenetics o CAN only provide evidence to support ideas falsify ideasBasic sciencedriven by curiosity eg study something required to have applied scienceApplied Sciencesolves particular problem leading to improve technology o Eg see if algae biofuel is viable in futureLecture 2Hypothesissimple straightforward testable falsifiable not circular o Leads to predictions that can be tested through observe experiment test o More credible if survive multiple attempts at falsifications that other hypotheses do notCircular Hypothesishypothesis that explains itself not open to being disprovedInductive Reasoningdraw conclusion through logic go from specific to general o Eg sun rise in eastDeductive Reasoninguse general knowledge to make specific prediction o Eg if everything made of cells people made of cells tooHypotheticodeductive reasoning 1 Conceptionstarts with problem leading to insight from observationtheory to a general hypothesis 2 Assessmentrefine hypothesis into specificity either confirm falsify with dataresults then look at in a different wayTheorycollection of researchstatements that cant be falsified by one hypothesis o Broad statement not testable o Leads to new hypotheses o Supported by large amount evidence o Can change over time as evidence growScientific statementsdescribeexplain natural phenomenao Require statistics good hypothesis testability reproducibilityTypes of Datao Quantitativerecorded measurements shown in graphs o Qualitativeobservations descriptions o Can code qualitative to turn it into quantitative Evidence2 types o Confirmation by data that strengthen hypothesis validity o Rejection through inconsistent data for a hypothesis o Important to repeat testing from different angles methods question results Textbook scienceextensively tested things treated as face common knowledge not likely overturned DNA is hereditaryFrontier Sciencepreliminary research lacks evidence can cause paradigm shift Experimental Research processobserve natural phenomena formulate hypothesis predict conduct experiment conclude revise experiment at diff angleTai 1Case studymimicry ohypothesismimicry evolved in harmless species as evolutionary adaptation to reduce chances getting eateno Predictionif predators inherit avoidance of coral snakes coloration then colourful king snake will be attacked less o FindingsObservationsartificial snakes attacked less in regions with coral snakes statistics validated prediction and hypothesis shows this is a scenario of natural selection future hypotheses generatedo Controlled experimenthas experimental group kingsnakes and control group brown snakes 1 Only variable of interest should differ between the two groups 2 Control group used to cancel out effects of unwanted variables3NoteAll unwanted variables are never kept constanty Easier to test simple hypothesisMisconduct in science o Frabrication of dataedit image make up information to support result o Falsification of dataexclude data that doesnt support hypothesistheory o Plagiarismuse someone else wordsideas without creditingPseudoscienceideas put forward as scientific when they are not o Eg astrology paranormal phenomena UFO o To recognizelook for culture unchanging data challenges considered heresy bias no scientific data Darwins Secret Journey Hypotheseso Tree Of Lifeall things arise from common ancestor o Small change in trait lead to large change in speciesRevised Theorynature doesnt revolve around men everything revolves around nature bc only those who survive to reproduce live on HIV breakthroughtake patient with drug resistant virus off drugs recreate environment that wildtype can survive in then bombard wildtype with many drugs to kill off as many as possible and prevent resistance from reoccurringo Doubleedgewildtype more dangerous than resistant strain o Lead to almost complete eradication of virus Evolution cannot perform major change or perfection can only modify what already exists o Eg eyes started out simple gradually evolved to become more complex preciseDarwin faith in god drastically affected by death of daughterDarwin influence to publish book came opponents trying to publish what he discoveredChimps and humans have 98 similarity in DNAFactors that shaped his ideasbeagle skeletons underlying structure publication by multhus finch variation physical evidenceHis ideas struggled against the churchesCreated theory of natural selectionTai 2
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