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Final

Biol 250 Complete Final Exam Review

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 150
Professor
Kirsten Muller
Semester
Fall

Description
Bio 250 FINAL EXAM NOTESDarwin MovieHIV continually adapts to medicationsevolves quickly started to see resistant strains in about a dozen yearsHIV replicates in white blood cellsmutation results in different varietiesnatural selection favours drug resistant strainsDarwins ideas were shaped by finches on the different islands and skeletal similaritythe Church played a huge role in every aspect of life theory of evolution went against that he was going to get scooped by Alfred Wallace so it pushed him to publish as well as his daughters death didnt think God could take away his childWallace and Darwin published a joint paper but Darwin kept publishingHuxley was Darwins bulldog and used reason over the supernaturalevolution is still a theory but descendants from common ancestors is fact Chapter 1 Intro to Evolutionscience a branch of knowledge conducted on objective principles involving the systematized observation of and experiments with natural and physical phenomena it is a method to examine naturally occurring phenomena around uscan only falsify a hypothesis to help support the hypothesis or theoryCANNOT prove itbasic researchdriven by the curiosity of the researcher mainly done at universities and governmental institutionsapplied researchdone to solve a particular problem and leads to a newimproved technology generates the big MMR vaccine1998 study in the Lancet sample size of 12 parents of 8 noted autism symptoms after possible link children getting MMR dropped considerably the sample size was small they were not randomly selected and there was no control group the author generatedbecause he has a vaccine to rival the MMRTHERE IS NO LINKinductive reasoningdraws conclusions through the logical process of induction repeating specific observations can lead to generalizations ex Sun rises in the eastdiscovery scienceobservation of a phenomenon and figure out howwhy it happensex how an organism survives in a toxic environmenthypothesis tentative answer to a wellframed question leads to prediction that can be tested by observation or experimentationex Obsvflashlight doesnt workQwhy doesntt it workHypothesisthe batteries are deadExpreplace the batteries and it still doesnt workConcthe hypothesis is falsedeductive reasoning uses general premises to make specific predictionsex if organisms are made of cells and humans are organisms then humans are made of cellsa hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable it becomes more credible if it survives multiple attempts of falsificationstheorybroader than a hypothesis can lead to new testable hypotheses supported by many hypotheses not overturned on the falsification of 1 hypothesiscircular hypothesisoccurs when an eventphenomena becomes an explanation for itselfex applied biosystems applies for many patents because it is innovativedatarecorded observations can be qualitative or quantitative hypotheses are tested through experimentation or observation data strengthens validitychoosing a research topic depends on curiosity and interest future goals experience andor fundingMimicry Snakesmimicry evolved in harmless species as an evolutionary adaptation that increases chances of survival venomous eastern coral snakes and nonvenomous scarlet kingsnakecontrol group resembling plain brown snakesfound that the ringed snakes were attacked less frequently in the geographic region where coral snakes were foundmisconducts in scienceWoosuk Hwang papers on cloned stem cells were based on fraudulent dataFRAUDfabrication of datamaking up data images falsification of dataexclusion of nonsupporting dataplagiarismuse of someone elses words without creditpseudosciencedriven by cultural ideological or commerical goals ex UFOs astrology paranormalChapter 24 Intro to Evolution Part IItheory of evolution complex body of statements about the causes of evolution that is well supported but still incompleteevolution a process by which different kinds of organisms come into being by the differentiation and genetic mutation of earlier organismstheory mature coherent body of interconnected statement based on reasoning and evidence that explains a variety of observationsearly conceptsLamarck proposed the inheritance of acquired characteristics Figure 241 pg 506Taxonomylinnaeusbinomial nomenclatureEvolutionary Biologistspopulation geneticistchange in allele frequenciesevolutionary ecologistdesign of phenotypes for reproductive successmolecular evolutionisthistory in DNA and proteinssystematistevolutionary trees and variation among speciespaleontologistmajor patterns and trends over timeevolution cannot be reconciled with a literal interpretation of the bibleevolution important forbioinformatics molecular bio ecology stats health science agriculture natural products conservation and environmental management understanding ourselvesnatural selectionacts on individuals but evolution occurs in populations species difficult to define depends on organism biological ecological phylogenetic conceptsevidence of change over time supported by fossils fossil record and geological
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