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BIOL 239 Quiz: Set 17- Cloning

8 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 239
Christine Dupont

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Cloning Summary: o To reduce the size of large DNA strands, researchers use restriction enzymes (endonucleases) o These enzymes protect prokaryotic cells from viral infection by digesting viral DNA. Bacteria shield their DNA from digestion by their own restriction enzymes through the selective addition of methyl groups (CH 3 to the restriction recognition sites in their DNA. o There are two ways in which enzymes make their cuts: Blunt ends Sticky ends o Gel electrophoresis can be used to distinguish the different sizes of DNA fragments What is gel electrophoresis? Gel electrophoresis is the movement of charged molecules (DNA) to an electrode The electrodes cause the DNA molecules to migrate from one end to another with size being a factor of the movement of molecules of DNA Ethidium bromide is a fluorescent DNA binding added to the DNA which helps the visualization of the DNA molecules o Cloning fragments of DNA: Gel electrophoresis and restriction mapping can be used for simple DNA molecules but the genomes of animals, plants and even some microorganisms such as E. coli are too large and the digestion from one of these organisms would result in too many fragments that could not be analyzed In order to analyze these fragments, researchers must isolate and clone the isolated molecules to analyze the isolated DNA fragment Molecular cloning is a process that consists of two steps: 1. DNA fragments that fall within a specified range of sizes are inserted into specialized chromosomelike carriers called vectors which insure the transport, replication and purification of individual inserts
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