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Study Guide

BIOL 239- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 65 pages long!)

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Christine Dupont

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[BIOL 239] Comprehensive winter guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Set 1 Mendelian Genetics: ​the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics or the genetic properties or features of an organism. Gene: ​A portion of a DNA molecule that serves as the basic unit of heredity. Genes control the characteristics that an offspring will have by transmitting information in the sequence of nucleotides on short sections of DNA. Trait: ​is a feature of an organism. For example, eye colour. Heredity: ​the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another. Chromosome: ​is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Chromatid: ​each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA. Allele: ​are alternative forms of a single gene. Phenotype: ​is the physical expression or characteristics of a trait. For example, blue, brown or hazel. Genotype: ​is the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait. Somatic Cell: ​any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells. Autosome: ​any chromosome not considered as a sec choromosome, or is not involved in sex determination. Telomere: ​located at each end of a chromosome which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Centromere: ​the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach during cell division. Germ cell: ​half the number of chromosomes of a somatic cell. Self-fertilization: ​fertilization by the union of ova with pollen or sperm from the same individual. Cross-fertilization: ​fertilization in which the gametes are produced by separate individuals or sometimes by individuals of different kinds. Parental generation: ​The first set of parents crossed in which their genotype is the basis for predicting the genotype of their offspring, which in turn, may be crossed. Filial generation: ​a generation in a breeding experiment that is successive to a mating between parents of two distinctively different but usually relatively pure genotypes. The first generation is F1 and the second is F2. Monohybrid crosses: ​is a cross for a single trait. Mating between individuals that differ in only one trait. Dominant trait: ​a trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes it. For example, in humans dark hair is a dominant trait; if one parent contributes a gene for dark hair and the other contributes a gene for light hair, the child will have dark hair. Recessive trait: ​can be carried in a person's genes without appearing in that person. For example, a dark-haired person may have one gene for dark hair, which is a dominant trait, and one gene for light hair, which is recessive. Dominant allele: ​an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different. Recessive allele: ​only shows if the individual has two copies of the recessive allele. Polymorphic: ​A gene may have several alleles that normally occur in a population. Monomorphic: ​some genes have only one allele that is normally present in a population. (others are rare) find more resources at
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