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Study Guide

BIOL 239- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 65 pages long!)Premium

65 pages83 viewsWinter 2018

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL239
Professor
Christine Dupont
Study Guide
Final

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UW
BIOL 239
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Set 1 Mendelian
Genetics: the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics or the genetic properties or
features of an organism.
Gene: A portion of a DNA molecule that serves as the basic unit of heredity. Genes control the
characteristics that an offspring will have by transmitting information in the sequence of nucleotides on
short sections of DNA.
Trait: is a feature of an organism. For example, eye colour.
Heredity: the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Chromosome: is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism.
Chromatid: each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during
cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
Allele: are alternative forms of a single gene.
Phenotype: is the physical expression or characteristics of a trait. For example, blue, brown or hazel.
Genotype: is the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait.
Somatic Cell: any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
Autosome: any chromosome not considered as a sec choromosome, or is not involved in sex
determination.
Telomere: located at each end of a chromosome which protects the end of the chromosome from
deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Centromere: the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach during cell
division.
Germ cell: half the number of chromosomes of a somatic cell.
Self-fertilization: fertilization by the union of ova with pollen or sperm from the same individual.
Cross-fertilization: fertilization in which the gametes are produced by separate individuals or sometimes
by individuals of different kinds.
Parental generation: The first set of parents crossed in which their genotype is the basis for predicting
the genotype of their offspring, which in turn, may be crossed.
Filial generation: a generation in a breeding experiment that is successive to a mating between parents of
two distinctively different but usually relatively pure genotypes. The first generation is F1 and the second
is F2.
Monohybrid crosses: is a cross for a single trait. Mating between individuals that differ in only one trait.
Dominant trait: a trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes it. For example,
in humans dark hair is a dominant trait; if one parent contributes a gene for dark hair and the other
contributes a gene for light hair, the child will have dark hair.
Recessive trait: can be carried in a person's genes without appearing in that person. For example, a
dark-haired person may have one gene for dark hair, which is a dominant trait, and one gene for light hair,
which is recessive.
Dominant allele: an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or
different.
Recessive allele: only shows if the individual has two copies of the recessive allele.
Polymorphic: A gene may have several alleles that normally occur in a population.
Monomorphic: some genes have only one allele that is normally present in a population. (others are rare)
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Gregor Mendel was an Austrian Monk who discovered the basic principles of heredity through
experiments in his garden. He examined the inheritance of clear cut alternative traits in pea plants, such as
purple versus white flowers or yellow versus green seeds. Mendel's observations became the foundation
of modern genetics and the study of heredity, and he is widely considered a pioneer in the field of
genetics. Mendel’s laws are based on the hypothesis that observable traits are determined by units of
inheritance that are visible to the naked eye.
Four general themes emerge from Mendel’s work:
1. The first is that variation, as expressed in alternative forms of a trait is widespread in nature. This
provides the raw materials for the continuously evolving variety of life we see around us.
2. Second, observable variation is essential for following genes from one generation to the next.
3. Third, variation is not distributed solely by chance, rather it is inherited according to genetic laws
that explain why like begets both like and unlike.
4. Fourth, the laws Mendel discovered about heredity apply equally well to all sexually reproducing
organisms, from protozoans to peas to people.
Artificial selection: The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits. Organisms with the
desired traits, such as size or taste, are artificially mated or cross-pollinated with organisms with similar
desired traits. Artificial selection was the first applied genetic technique.
Domestication: the process of hereditary reorganization of wild animals and plants into domestic and
cultivated forms according to the interests of people. In its strictest sense, it refers to the initial stage of
human mastery of wild animals and plants. The fundamental distinction of domesticated animals and
plants from their wild ancestors is that they are created by human labour to meet specific requirements or
whims and are adapted to the conditions of continuous care and solicitude people maintain for them.
Domestication has played an enormous part in the development of humankind and material culture. It has
resulted in the appearance of agriculture as a special form of animal and plant production. It is precisely
those animals and plants that became objects of agricultural activity that have undergone the greatest
changes when compared with their wild ancestors. For example, dogs slowly arose from wolves.
Nature refers to the human traits one gets biologically through their parents and cannot be altered or
changed in any way. Nature vs.Nurture is a debate. Nature (heredity, genes) vs.Nurture
(environment) It is debate whether we are influenced by genes or the our surroundings.
Discrete, or discontinuous, traits are controlled by a small number of genes, often only one. These genes
generally have two alleles. For instance, Mendel's pea seeds had two alleles for shape: smooth or
wrinkled. An example of human alleles is seen with freckles; each person has a freckled or non-freckled
allele. Discrete units of inheritance are alleles of genes.
Pure-breeding lines means that the parents will also pass down a specific phenotypic trait to their
offspring. Remember that a phenotype is the outward appearance of something. True bred organisms will
have a pure genotype (genetic expression of a trait) and will only produce a certain phenotype.
Hybrid: known as cross breed, is the result of mixing, through sexual reproduction, two animals or plants
of different breeds, varieties, species or genera. A hybrid organism is one that is heterozygous, which
means that is carries two different alleles at a particular genetic position, or locus.
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