[BIOL 239] Comprehensive winter guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com
Set 1 Mendelian
Genetics: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂthe study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics or the genetic properties or
features of an organism.
Gene: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂA portion of a DNA molecule that serves as the basic unit of heredity. Genes control the
characteristics that an offspring will have by transmitting information in the sequence of nucleotides on
short sections of DNA.
Trait: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂis a feature of an organism. For example, eye colour.
Heredity: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂthe passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Chromosome: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂis a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism.
Chromatid: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂeach of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during
cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
Allele: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂare alternative forms of a single gene.
Phenotype: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂis the physical expression or characteristics of a trait. For example, blue, brown or hazel.
Genotype: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂis the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait.
Somatic Cell: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂany cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
Autosome: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂany chromosome not considered as a sec choromosome, or is not involved in sex
Telomere: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂlocated at each end of a chromosome which protects the end of the chromosome from
deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Centromere: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂthe region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach during cell
Germ cell: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂhalf the number of chromosomes of a somatic cell.
Self-fertilization: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂfertilization by the union of ova with pollen or sperm from the same individual.
Cross-fertilization: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂfertilization in which the gametes are produced by separate individuals or sometimes
by individuals of different kinds.
Parental generation: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂThe first set of parents crossed in which their genotype is the basis for predicting
the genotype of their offspring, which in turn, may be crossed.
Filial generation: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂa generation in a breeding experiment that is successive to a mating between parents of
two distinctively different but usually relatively pure genotypes. The first generation is F1 and the second
Monohybrid crosses: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂis a cross for a single trait. Mating between individuals that differ in only one trait.
Dominant trait: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂa trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes it. For example,
in humans dark hair is a dominant trait; if one parent contributes a gene for dark hair and the other
contributes a gene for light hair, the child will have dark hair.
Recessive trait: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂcan be carried in a person's genes without appearing in that person. For example, a
dark-haired person may have one gene for dark hair, which is a dominant trait, and one gene for light hair,
which is recessive.
Dominant allele: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂan allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or
Recessive allele: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂonly shows if the individual has two copies of the recessive allele.
Polymorphic: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂA gene may have several alleles that normally occur in a population.
Monomorphic: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂsome genes have only one allele that is normally present in a population. (others are rare)
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