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Study Guide

BIOL 239- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 48 pages long!)

48 Pages
25 Views
Spring 2018

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL239
Professor
Christine Dupont
Study Guide
Final

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UW
BIOL 239
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Set 1: Medellin Reading
self-fertilization: both egg and pollen come from the same plant
cross-fertilize: brush pollen from one plant onto a female organ of another plant
Mendel’s choice of peas as adantageous due to:
o short growing season, thus large numbers of individuals could be made with
each successive generation
o clear-cut alternative forms of particular traits
o collected and perpetuated lines of peas that bred true
matings within such pure-breeding lines produce offspring carrying
specific parental traits that remain from generation to generation
antagonist pairs: constant but mutually exclusive, alternative traits (ex. purple vs white
flowers)
hybrids: offspring of genetically dissimilar parents
reciprocal crosses: reversal of the traits of male and female parents thus controlling
whether a particular trait was transmitted via the egg cell within the ovule or via a
sperm cell within the pollen
o ex. pollen from purple flower to fertilize eggs of white or vice versa
progeny of reciprocal crosses were similar two parents contributed
equally
Genetic Analysis According to Mendel
Parental (P) generation first filial (F1) generation monohybrid crosses second filial
(F2) generation
presence of green peas in F2 confirmed blending had not occurred
alleles: alternative forms of a single gene
monohybrids: individuals having two different alleles for a single trait
Genes Encode Proteins
SBE1 (starch-branching enzyme) is the enzyme that the pea shape gene encodes
SBE1:
o catalyzes the conversion of amylose (unbranched linear molecule of starch) to
amylopectin (starch molecule composed of several branching chains)
o dominant R allele of pea shape gene causes formation of active SBE1 enzyme
that functions normally
o RR homozygotes produce a high proportion of branched starch molecules (allow
peas to maintain a rounded shape)
o enzyme determined by recessive r allele is abnormal and does not function
effectively
o in homozygous recessive rr peas, sucrose builds up because less of it is converted
into starch
excess sucrose modifies osmotic pressure, causing water to enter the
young seeds (seeds lose water, shrink and wrinkle as they mature)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
o single dominate allele in Rr heterozygotes apparently produces enough of the
normal enzyme to prevent wrinkling
a specific gene determines a specific enzyme whose activity affects pea shape
The Law of Segregation
gametes: specialized cells (eggs within the ovules of the female parent and sperm cells
within the pollen grains) that carry genes between generations
zygote: fertilized egg
the two alleles for each trait separate (segregate) during gamete formation, and then
unite at random, one from each parent, at fertilization
The Law of Independent Assortment
during gamete formation, different pairs of alleles segregate independently of each
other
Branched-Line Diagrams
shows all the possibilities for each gene in a sequence of columns
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
[BIOL 239] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com Set 1: Medellin Reading • self-fertilization: both egg and pollen come from the same plant • cross-fertilize: brush pollen from one plant onto a female organ of another plant • Mendel’s choice of peas ▯as ad▯antageous due to: o short growing season, thus large numbers of individuals could be made with each successive generation o clear-cut alternative forms of particular traits o collected and perpetuated lines of peas that bred true ▪ matings within such pure-breeding lines produce offspring carrying specific parental traits that remain from generation to generation • antagonist pairs: constant but mutually exclusive, alternative traits (ex. purple vs white flowers) • hybrids: offspring of genetically dissimilar parents • reciprocal crosses: reversal of the traits of male and female parents thus controlling whether a particular trait was transmitted via the egg cell within the ovule or via a sperm cell within the pollen o ex. pollen from purple flower to fertilize eggs of white or vice versa ▪ progeny of reciprocal crosses were similar  two parents contributed equally Genetic Analysis According to Mendel • Parental (P) generation  first filial1(F ) generation –monohybrid crosses second filial (F2) generation • presence of green peas in F 2onfirmed blending had not occurred • alleles: alternative forms of a single gene • monohybrids: individuals having two different alleles for a single trait Genes Encode Proteins • SBE1 (starch-branching enzyme) is the enzyme that the pea shape gene encodes • SBE1: o catalyzes the conversion of amylose (unbranched linear molecule of starch) to amylopectin (starch molecule composed of several branching chains) o dominant R allele of pea shape gene causes formation of active SBE1 enzyme that functions normally o RR homozygotes produce a high proportion of branched starch molecules (allow peas to maintain a rounded shape) o enzyme determined by recessive r allele is abnormal and does not function effectively o in homozygous recessive rr peas, sucrose builds up because less of it is converted into starch ▪ excess sucrose modifies osmotic pressure, causing water to enter the young seeds (seeds lose water, shrink and wrinkle as they mature) find more resources at oneclass.com
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