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Study Guide

BIOL 239- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 48 pages long!)

48 Pages

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Christine Dupont

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[BIOL 239] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Set 1: Medellin Reading • self-fertilization: both egg and pollen come from the same plant • cross-fertilize: brush pollen from one plant onto a female organ of another plant • Mendel’s choice of peas ▯as ad▯antageous due to: o short growing season, thus large numbers of individuals could be made with each successive generation o clear-cut alternative forms of particular traits o collected and perpetuated lines of peas that bred true ▪ matings within such pure-breeding lines produce offspring carrying specific parental traits that remain from generation to generation • antagonist pairs: constant but mutually exclusive, alternative traits (ex. purple vs white flowers) • hybrids: offspring of genetically dissimilar parents • reciprocal crosses: reversal of the traits of male and female parents thus controlling whether a particular trait was transmitted via the egg cell within the ovule or via a sperm cell within the pollen o ex. pollen from purple flower to fertilize eggs of white or vice versa ▪ progeny of reciprocal crosses were similar  two parents contributed equally Genetic Analysis According to Mendel • Parental (P) generation  first filial1(F ) generation –monohybrid crosses second filial (F2) generation • presence of green peas in F 2onfirmed blending had not occurred • alleles: alternative forms of a single gene • monohybrids: individuals having two different alleles for a single trait Genes Encode Proteins • SBE1 (starch-branching enzyme) is the enzyme that the pea shape gene encodes • SBE1: o catalyzes the conversion of amylose (unbranched linear molecule of starch) to amylopectin (starch molecule composed of several branching chains) o dominant R allele of pea shape gene causes formation of active SBE1 enzyme that functions normally o RR homozygotes produce a high proportion of branched starch molecules (allow peas to maintain a rounded shape) o enzyme determined by recessive r allele is abnormal and does not function effectively o in homozygous recessive rr peas, sucrose builds up because less of it is converted into starch ▪ excess sucrose modifies osmotic pressure, causing water to enter the young seeds (seeds lose water, shrink and wrinkle as they mature) find more resources at
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