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BIOL240 – Full Class Notes.docx

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BIOL 240
Josh Neufeld

BIOL240MicrobiologyTopic 1 MICROBIOLOGY IN CONTEXTWhat is Microbiology The science of microorganisms very small unicellular organisms o Singlecelled microscopic organismsThe discipline is just over a century oldHas given rise to molecular biology and biotechnologyMicrobesMacroorganisms Prokaryotic o None knownEukaryotic o Animals o PlantsMicroorganisms Prokaryotes o Archaea o BacteriaEukaryotes o Algae o Fungi o ProtozoaWhat do you think microorganisms in soils water and your body are doing FeedingWarfareincompatible compoundsCommunicating with each otherBuildingrepairingReproducingRestingProduce various chemicals for different functions1 Metabolism Uptake of chemicals from the environment their transformation within the cell and elimination of wastes into the environmentThe cell is thus an open systemALL microbial life viruses dont have this are they really alive2 Reproduction growthChemicals from the environment are turned into new cells under the direction of preexisting cells3 DifferentiationFormation of a new cell structure such as a spore usually as part of a cellular life cycle not all cells but some4 CommunicationAll cells communicate or interact primarily by means of chemicals that are released or taken up 5 MovementSome living organisms are often capable of selfpropulsion flagella motor6 Evolution All cells evolve to display new biological propertiesPhylogenetic trees show the evolutionary relationships between cells Must keep in mind these core properties mentioned above as they explain all microbial processesMachinecatalytic functions used to create energy and precursors of other moleculesCoding functions used for passing on genetics and creating important proteins make a blueprintThese functions come together the proteins energy etc and aid in growth and reproductionWhy Study Microbiology Microorganisms were the first life on Earth Microorganisms created the biosphere that allowed multicellular organisms to evolve o Cyanobacterias metabolism has Oxygen as a waste productThis prepared Earth for more complex life formsMulticellular organisms evolved from microorganisms 50 of the biomass on Earth is comprised of microorganismsMicroorganisms will be on Earth forever Our understanding of life has arisen largely from studies of microorganismso Biochemistry and genetics o Studies of microorganisms continue to contribute to fundamental knowledge of life processesWe still know very little about the microorganisms that are present on EarthValue of Microbiology on Earth1 FoodFood preservation heat cold radiation chemicalsFermented foodsFood additives monosodium glutamate citric acid yeast2 AgricultureN fixation N2NH converting nitrogen to ammonia 223 Nutrient cyclingAnimal husbandryCelluloseCOCHAnimal ProteinRumen 24 3 HealthIdentify new diseasesCreate treatments cures and prevention4 EnvironmentBiofuels CH 4 Fermentation CornEthanolBioremediation spilled oilOCO organic pollutantsCO 22220 Microbial Mining CuSCuCu5 BiotechnologyGenetically modified organismsProduction of pharmaceuticals insulin and other human proteinsGene therapy for certain diseases person with diseasecorrect genetic lesion6 Biogeochemistry
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