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Microbiology Complete Notes Including Midterm Material

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BIOL 240
Josh Neufeld

o See Figure 2.7, pg. 27 o There are two distinct lineages of prokaryotes, the Bacteria and the Archaea • The Archaea are actually more closely related to the Eukarya than they are to the Bacteria o Anywhere on a phylogenetic tree, a "clade" is a group of organisms with a common ancestor Module 2: The Diversity of Microorganisms Lecture 3 Material The Physiological Diversity of Microorganisms • OK, what are the two things that microorganisms need to get in order to survive? o Energy (for cellular processes) and carbon (for building stuff) • Talk about the different names for organisms based on how they get these things. o Chemotroph vs. phototroph: chemotrophs get energy from chemicals, while phototrophs get energy from light o Chemoorganotrophs vs. chemolithotroph: chemoorganotrophs get their energy from organic substances, while chemolithotrophs get their energy from inorganic substances o Heterotrophs vs. autotrophs: heterotrophs get their carbon from pre-existing organic compounds, while autotrophs get their carbon by "fixing" CO2 • Notably, most phototrophs are autotrophs (makes sense that they don't need actual substances for either carbon or energy, right?) • Also, note that photoautotrophs are primary producers because they produce new organic matter from just carbon dioxide: and thus other organisms can feed off this! • Describe how organisms can also be classified based on the environments which they thrive in. o This is particularly relevant for extremophiles, which are microorganisms which thrive in extreme conditions, such as: • High temperature: hyperthermophile • Medium high temperature: thermophile • Low pH: acidophile • High pH: alkaliphile • High pressure: barophile • High salt environment: halophile • Which phyla are present in the domain Bacteria? Comment where appropriate on each. o Proteobacteria: a lot of chemotrophs here (both organo- and litho-) o Gram-positive bacteria: test positive for the Gram-stain -- it means they have a similar cell wall structure o Cyanobacteria: they do photosynthesis (thus producing oxygen for us), and they are very visual (we can see them easily) o Planctomyces: they have a characteristic stalk shape o Spirochetes: they are in a spiral shape o Green sulfur and non-sulfur: they are photosynthetic o Aquifex, thermotoga: they are found in high temperature environments o Env-OP2: we can't culture these: we only know they exist because we have sequenced their rRNA! (the same applies to SAR-11, which we saw in a video) • Now for the domain archaea. Give a general overview of phylogenetic structures we see here. o Firstly, the domain can be split into 2 sub-domains: euryarchaeota and crenarchaeota o The euryarchaeota sub-domain has 3 groups: • Methanogens: strict anaerobes who produce methane • Halophiles: strict aerobes who like very salty environments • Acidophiles: grow best at low pH 3
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