Study Guides (238,527)
Canada (115,195)
Biology (1,065)
BIOL 240 (72)

Final Exam Review Has an overview and summary of each topic, includes many pictures taken from the slides and charts, including a mega chart at the end of all of the prokaryotes he covers and the features of each. 24 pages in total

20 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
BIOL 240
Cheryl Duxbury

Topic 9 Principles of Bacterial Genetics I auxotroph: mutant which is unable to make a particular nutrient genotype: description of alleles within an organism, differences from the wild-type ex. hisC: histidine synthesis hisC-: cannot synthesize histidine phenotype: observable properties of a strain transitions: purine substituted for another purine or pyrimidine substituted for another pyrimidine transversion: purine substituted for a pyrimidine and vice versa selection:isolation of cells with a particular genotype on the basis of growth ex. can select for His+ on the basis of growth, but not for His -grow under specific conditions -takes less time than screening -penicillin selection is used for non-selectable mutants (kills actively dividing cells) -only mutants remain and can be screened screening: identification of cells with a phenotype such as colour, morphology, or no growth -screened on media with nutrients and on minimal media revertant: reversal of mutation to wild-type form suppressor: additional mutation that compensates for the original mutation (may be in the same or a different gene) mutagens: chemical, physical or biological agents that increase mutation rates ex. chemicals modify bases such as nucleotide analogues which resemble bases (incorrect pairing) ex. intercalating agents are inserted between base pairs, causing frameshift mutations ionizing rays produce hydroxyl radicals UV rays (nonionizing) produce pyrimidine dimers which covalently bond T and C, leading to a greater probability of the sequence being misread SOS DNA repair: very error-prone, triggered by DNA damage, regulon regulated by LexA (respressor) and RecA, form of negative control single strand damage undamaged strand becomes template double strand damage requires recombination, very error-prone translesion synthesis when replication stalls because of damage, replaces DNA polymerase with special polymerases Ames test: evaluates potential mutagens, the auxotroph is grown then a chemical (possible mutagen) is added Topic 10: Principles of Genetics II DNA transfer transformation: transfer of free floating DNA transduction: transfer of genes from one to another by a virus conjugation: transfer involving cell-to-cell contact Recombination -physical exchange of DNA between genetic elements homologous recombination: physical exchange of DNA between sources with sequence similarity transformation competent cell are capable of taking up DNA, can be made competent by treating with salt or electricity, to make the membrane more fluid -DNA binds to membrane, then is taken inside and integrated by homologous recombination transduction generalized random host DNA specialized site-specific host DNA -in general only rare particles contain host DNA, transducing particles only contain host DNA -in specialized, every particle is transducing and they also contain phage DNA Plasmids -circular DNA -a few to 100s of the same plasmid can be present -incompatible if when they are transferred, they cannot replicate in new host -episomes can integrate directly into the chromosome -curing is the inhibition of plasmid replication bacteriocins have proteins that inhibit or kill closely related species (used as preservatives) -replicate by using host DNA polymerases -plasmids with common replication mechanisms are incompatible Conjugation -tra genes code for membrane proteins -tral gene acts like helicase F plamid (fertility) -episome - preseence depends on if cell can synthesize F pilus, mobilize DNA for transfer, surface receptors -Insertion sequence prone to recombination with f plasmid Hfr high frequency of recombination -Hfr choromosome is rarely fully transferred Joshua Lederberg transduction research Complementation -process by which a funciontal allele in a merodiploid compensates for a defective one merodiploid: small fragment of homologous DNA, carries 2 copies of a genetic region, may have different alleles trans complementation two copies are on different DNA molecules (transduction) complementation groups determine if mutation is in the same or a different gene Transposable Elements -units of DNA that move from one location to another insertion sequences encode transposase (necessary for transposition) gene, flanked by inverted repeats transposons: insertion sequences surrounding other genes, often carry antibiotic resistance, move between organisms and can interrupt gene function and cause mutations conservative transposition: original transposon is excised and re-inserted at a new site replicative transposon: original transposon is copied and the copy is inserted at a new site Transposon mutagenesis Topic 11: Molecular Biology restriction enzyme: endonuclease that recognizes specific DNA sequences usually 4-8 base pairs long and cuts the phosphate backbone, recognizes palindromes ex. EcoRI 6 ()^6 = 1/4096 chance of finding it modification enzymes: recognizes the same site as the paired RE, methylates DNA to protect it -originated as plasmid maintenance hybrid molecule: base pairing of ssDNA or RNA from two different sources southern blot DNA is separated by agarose gel and transferred to a membrane for hybridization northern blot takes RNA molecules and transfers it into and membrane molecular cloning: isolation and incorporation of a piece of DNA into a vector for replication and manipulation 1. isolation of DNA fragment (using PCR can be amplified then cut with RE) 2. insertion into cloning vector (usually plasmid or virus, strands joined by DNA ligase) 3. introduction into host (transformation used for recombination) -selected after insertion using antibiotic markers to see if the gene of interest was transferred vector alone functional lacZ gene, blue colonies on X-gal vector plus gene if interest disrupted lacZ gene, white colonies on X-gal shotgun cloning whole genome is digested with a restriction enzyme, many different colonies are isolated, each with a different insert gene library mixture of cells containing a variety of cloned genes Topic 12: Microbial Genomics genomics: mapping, sequencing and comparing genomes functional genomics: assigning functions to unknown genes by analyzing effects of mutants transcriptome: entire complement of RNA produced under a given set of conditions -hybridization and sequencing data is used to measure gene expression -studied with a microarray labelled mRNA hybridizes to fixed DNA oligonucleotides and analyzes differential transcription patterns of entire genomes -used for expression of specific genes classes under different conditions (regulons), compares gene content in related organisms proteomics: study of structure, function, regulation of all proteins in a genome in 2D electrophoresis, first dimension proteins separated by isoelectric point; second dimension proteins are denatured and separated by size >50% sequence similarity means typically similar functions >70% sequence similarity means almost certainly similar functions -protein domains give major indications to the function of a protein
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 240

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.