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The Fundamentals of Biology Lab Review notes.docx

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 240
Cheryl Duxbury

Skydrop The Fundamentals of Biology Lab Review notes 240LExperiment 1 Simple Staining procedure a single stain is used and all cells and structures generally stain the same colour regardless of typeUsed to see the morphological type of cells such as cocci rods spirals and vibriosUsed to see a white object on a white backgroundTwo types of staining techniques 1 Positive procedures for light microscopy basic with positively charged chromophore2 Negative stainPositive stain example was with methylene blue with blue chromophore resulting in positive blue staining of the microorganismGrowthturbidity and cloudinessExperiment 2The light microscope consists of a lens system a controllable light source and a geared mechanism for adjusting the distance between the lens and objectMagnification achieved is because of objective and ocular lensImage is magnified by ocular to make the virtual imageCalibrated mechanical stage and fine adjustment knob are easily damagedUse base and arm while carryingThere is a condenser underneath the lens that collects and concentrates lightExperiment 3Most bacteria are in three forms spirillum coccus and bacillusThere may be variations in anatomy among themestimatedactualmSpecimenmWhen measuring MagnificationResults E coli is rodlikeBacillus subtilis is a chain of rodsStaphylococcus epidermidis is circularRhodospirillum rubrum is vibriocomma likeExperiment 4Christian Gram invented the Gram stain in 1884Helps differentiate gram positive and negativeGram stain is a differential staining technique different from simple stainingTests based on the ability of a bacteria to retain stainThe Gram StainoUse primary stain of Crystal VioletoUse mordant fixes stainsoDecolourizing agent of 95 ethyl alcoholoCounterstain with safranin redpinkGram PositivePurple Violet wont be decolourized
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