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BIOL240 Study Guide - Final Guide: Diplococcus, Streptococcus, Tuberculosis

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Cheryl Duxbury
Study Guide

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240L Microbiology Lab Experiments
Experiment 1: Simple Staining
- Single stain used and all cells stained the same colour
- can distinguish bacterial cells of various morphologies (cocci, rods, spirals, vibrios)
- Methylene blue, basic fuchsin (red) and crystal violet
positive staining procedure: stain is basic
positively charged (cationic) chromophore attracts slight negative bacteria
- spread loop of bacterial broth into a dime-sized drop
- Heat-fix organisms to the slide
- 1-3 drops of methylene blue stain to cover smear
- Growth in broth evident by turbidity or cloudiness
- re-suspend sediment in broth tubes before using (tap on tube)
Experiment 2: Operation of the Microscope
- Compound microscope: objective & ocular lenses
4x Scanning
10x Low power
40x High power/High-dry
100x Oil immersion
- Resolving power/resolution is the ability to distinguish two images as separate
- Oil improves resolution of magnified image, provides sharpness in detail
- Parafocal design: specimen remains in focus when switching to another lens
- Large knob: coarse adjustment
- Small knob: fine adjustment for critical focusing
- Turn ring of condenser left/right: match objective magnification that is being used
10 when using 10x objective lens
Uppermost position when using 100x oil immersion lens
Experiment 3: Basic Bacterial Shapes
Characteristic Coccus Bacillus Spirillium/Spirochet
Shape of cell Round Rod Spiral
Motility Most non-motile Most motile Most motile
Arrangement Single: micrococcus
Pairs: diplococcus
Chains: streptococcus
Groups of 4: Gaffkya
Cubes of 8: Sarcina
Clusters: Staphylococcus
Pairs: diplococcus
Chains: streptobacillus
Spores None Produced by different
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