BIOL240 Study Guide - Final Guide: Purple Sulfur Bacteria, Purple Bacteria, Green Sulfur Bacteria

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5 Aug 2016
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Topic 6: Culture and Control
Metabolism
Catabolism: breaking down molecules – release of energy
Anabolism: building up molecules – consumption of energy
oExample from class: he burned a leaf showing how microorganisms will take these
electrons for their own functions such as powering their flagella
Macronutrients: are require by ALL cells to build macromolecules
oC H O N P S
Micronutrients: required by some cells
oMost important is iron because it can fall under the macronutrient category
All life needs energy and carbon to make ATP
Energy source: for oxidation to provide electrons for ETC. Two types:
oLight – photosynthetic
oChemical – organic (Glucose) or inorganic (H2, NH3, S, NO2)
Early microorganisms used litho (inorganic), meaning rock
Carbon source: for cell maintenance and division. Two types:
oFixed organic (C-C bonds) heterotroph – eats others as a source of nutrients
oGaseous inorganic (CO2): autotroph – self feeder
[Energy source] [carbon source] [‘troph’]
Photo hetero
Chemoorgano + auto + troph
Chemolitho
Humans: chemoorganoheterotroph
Escherichia coli: chemoorganoheterotroph
Cyanobacteria: photoautotroph
Chemolithotrops: energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds
ofound only in prokaryotes – archaea and bacteria
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phototrophs: may be oxygenic or anoxygenic – rip open water and oxygen comes out
(electrons)
autotrophs: all autotrophs are primary producers – get their source from CO2
heterotrophs: use organic molecules produced by autotrophs
nitrogen is almost as important as carbon; microbes must be able to change nitrogen into a
useable form to make many macromolecules such as amino acids and nucleic acids
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Nutrient concentration: doesn’t matter what you provide the organisms with, they will
always run out of some sort of macromolecule that they need
Conditions
Obligate aerobes: require oxygen – oxygen acceptor at the end of the ETC
Microaerophiles: require oxygen in small amounts
Aerotolerant anaerobes: don’t use oxygen and aren’t harmed by the presence of it
Obligate anaerobes: cannot grow when oxygen is present
Facultative anaerobes: are able to grow without oxygen, but grow better when it’s
present
oExample: e. coli
the effect of oxygen on a cell depends on its available defenses
owhen organisms grow aerobically, reactive oxygen species are being created in
the process and are oxidizing agents meaning they will rip electrons off of nucleic acids,
lipids, and proteins
 this is exactly why some organisms die in the presence of oxygen
oorganisms that can deal with the presence of oxygen do one of a few things:
make catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase
ohydrogen peroxide (an oxidizing agent) oxidizes peroxides and acts as a shield to
protect the nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins
osuperoxide dismutase: good for eliminating superoxide anions
osome organisms antioxidants (glutathione) that go around and get oxidized
rather than the nucleic acids, lipids and proteins
Escherichia coli is fine in the presence of oxygen because during a catalase test hydrogen
peroxide is added and if bubbles formed it means ecoli produces catalase it as a shield against
oxygen
oa negative test would be hydrogen peroxide by itself – no bubbles formed
effects of pH: affects the macromolecule and transmembrane electrochemical gradient
oregardless of each microbes optimal pH range, intracellular pH stays neutral
ointernal pH found as low as 4.6 or as high as 9.5  but only in pH extremes
pH is the number one factor of which organism live where
oacidophile: low pH, acid loving
oneutrophile: moderate pH, around 7,  e. coli
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